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      Actual Concepts in Rhinosinusitis: A Review of Clinical Presentations, Inflammatory Pathways, Cytokine Profiles, Remodeling, and Management

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          Abstract

          Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a heterogeneous group of diseases. It is a significant and increasing health problem that affects about 15% of the population in Western countries. It has a substantial impact on patients’ health-related quality of life and daily functioning and represents a huge financial burden to society and the health care system as a result of the direct and indirect costs. In addition, RS is not well-understood, and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology. In the past decade, many papers have been published that have changed our understanding of RS. RS is commonly classified into acute and chronic RS based on symptom duration. In acute RS, an inflammatory reaction initiated by a viral infection characterizes most uncomplicated, mild to moderate cases. Therefore, the first line of treatment for these cases are intranasal steroids and not antibiotics. In severe and complicated cases, antibiotics combined with topical steroids remain the treatment of choice. On the other hand, chronic RS is actually subdivided into two distinct entities (chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps), as growing evidence indicates that these entities have specific inflammatory pathways and cytokine profiles. The authors review recent data regarding the clinical presentations, cytokine profiles, tissue remodeling, and modalities of treatment for each form of RS.

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          Most cited references 147

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          Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe.

           S E Durham,  V Bauchau (2004)
          To measure the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among European adults and the proportion of undiagnosed subjects, a two-step, cross-sectional, population-based survey in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK was undertaken. Step one of the study involved screening for allergic rhinitis by telephone interview, based on history of symptoms and/or self-awareness of the condition. Step two undertook confirmation of allergic rhinitis in a subset of the subjects screened positive; this was performed by a clinical diagnosis conducted in three to five clinical centres per country, including specific immunoglobulin E tests and a disease-specific questionnaire. A total of 9,646 telephone interviews were conducted between February and April 2001. Self-awareness of allergic rhinitis was reported by 19% of the subjects. Physician-based diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was reported by 13% of the subjects. In step two, 725 clinical assessments were conducted between May and August 2001. A total of 411 of patients, who underwent step two, had investigator-confirmed allergic rhinitis. Among patients with investigator-confirmed allergic rhinitis, 45% had not reported a previous diagnosis by a physician. Prevalence of subjects with clinically confirmable allergic rhinitis estimated by combining step one and step two data ranged from 17% in Italy to 29% in Belgium with an overall value of 23%. This large-scale study confirms that allergic rhinitis has a high prevalence in western Europe and is frequently undiagnosed.
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            Differentiation of chronic sinus diseases by measurement of inflammatory mediators.

            Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) clinically is a heterogeneous group of sinus diseases, which may cover different disease entities, or may represent a disease continuum. Studying inflammatory cells and mediators in clearly defined disease subgroups may lead to a better differentiation of chronic sinus diseases. Sinonasal mucosal tissue from 10 nasal polyp (NP) patients, 13 cystic fibrosis patients (CF-NP), eight CRS subjects without polyps, and nine control patients were stained for CD3, CD25, CD68, CD20, myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD138 and tissue homogenates were assayed for eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2sRalpha, IL-5, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MPO by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or UNICAP system. Nasal polyp and CF-NP showed increased numbers and activation of T cells, while only NP displayed an increase in plasma cells. Nasal polyp had significantly higher levels of eosinophilic markers [eosinophils, eotaxin, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)] compared with CRS, controls and CF-NP. Chronic rhinosinusitis was characterized by a Th1 polarization with high levels of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta, while NP showed a Th2 polarization with high IL-5 and immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations. Nasal polyp and CF-NP were discriminated by edema from CRS and controls, with CF-NP displaying a very prominent neutrophilic inflammation. Based on cellular and mediator profiles, we suggest that CRS, NP, and CF-NP are distinct disease entities within the group of chronic sinus diseases.
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              Rhinosinusitis: Establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care

              Background There is a need for more research on all forms of rhinosinusitis. Progress in this area has been hampered by a lack of consensus definitions and the limited number of published clinical trials. Objectives To develop consensus definitions for rhinosinusitis and outline strategies useful in clinical trials. Methods Five national societies, The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; The American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy; The American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery; The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the American Rhinologic Society formed an expert panel from multiple disciplines. Over two days, the panel developed definitions for rhinosinusitis and outlined strategies for design of clinical trials. Results Committee members agreed to adopt the term “rhinosinusitis” and reached consensus on definitions and strategies for clinical research on acute presumed bacterial rhinosinusitis, chronic rhinosinusitis without polyposis, chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis, and classic allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Symptom and objective criteria, measures for monitoring research progress, and use of symptom scoring tools, quality-of-life instruments, radiologic studies, and rhinoscopic assessment were outlined for each condition. Conclusion The recommendations from this conference should improve accuracy of clinical diagnosis and serve as a starting point for design of rhinosinusitis clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                philippe.eloy@uclouvain.be
                Journal
                Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
                Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
                Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
                Current Science Inc. (New York )
                1529-7322
                1534-6315
                28 January 2011
                2011
                : 11
                : 2
                : 146-162
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411754.2, ENT Department, , Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, ; Avenue Thérasse, 1, 5530 Yvoir, Belgium
                [2 ]GRID grid.410566.0, ISNI 0000000406263303, ENT Department, , Ghent University Hospital, ; De Pintelaan, 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
                Article
                180
                10.1007/s11882-011-0180-0
                7089088
                21274665
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

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