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Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) Fruits

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      Abstract

      Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu ( Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi ( Baccaurea macrocarpa) were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC) and carotenoid (TCC) contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts ( i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed) and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties.

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      The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.

      A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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        Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay.

        A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
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          The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 88400, Malaysia; E-Mails: misznarney@ 123456gmail.com (N.E.A.); fifilyana1111@ 123456gmail.com (F.A.K.); syazlina1991@ 123456gmail.com (S.S.)
            [2 ]Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor 86400, Malaysia
            Author notes
            [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: mofadz@ 123456ums.edu.my ; Tel.: +6-088-320104; Fax: +6-088-320291.
            Journal
            Antioxidants (Basel)
            Antioxidants (Basel)
            antioxidants
            Antioxidants
            MDPI
            2076-3921
            30 July 2014
            September 2014
            : 3
            : 3
            : 516-525
            4665419 10.3390/antiox3030516 antioxidants-03-00516
            © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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