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      The role of affect-driven impulsivity in gambling cognitions: A convenience-sample study with a Spanish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale

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          Background and aims

          Abnormal cognitions are among the most salient domain-specific features of gambling disorder. The aims of this study were: (a) to examine and validate a Spanish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) and (b) to examine associations between cognitive distortion levels, impulsivity, and gambling behavior.


          This study first recruited a convenience sample of 500 adults who had gambled during the previous year. Participants were assessed using the Spanish version of GRCS (GRCS-S) questionnaire, the UPPS-P impulsivity questionnaire, measures of gambling behavior, and potentially relevant confounders. Robust confirmatory factor analysis methods on half the sample were used to select the best models from a hypothesis-driven set. The best solutions were validated on the other half, and the resulting factors were later correlated with impulsivity dimensions (in the whole n = 500 factor analysis sample) and clinically relevant gambling indices (in a separate convenience sample of 137 disordered and non-disordered gamblers; validity sample).


          This study supports the original five-factor model, suggests an alternative four-factor solution, and confirms the psychometric soundness of the GRCS-S. Importantly, cognitive distortions consistently correlated with affect- or motivation-driven aspects of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking), but not with cognitive impulsivity (lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance).

          Discussion and conclusions

          Our findings suggest that the GRCS-S is a valid and reliable instrument to identify gambling cognitions in Spanish samples. Our results expand upon previous research signaling specific associations between gambling-related distortions and affect-driven impulsivity in line with models of motivated reasoning.

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          Most cited references 86

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            The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers

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              Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

              To present nationally representative data on lifetime prevalence and comorbidity of pathological gambling with other psychiatric disorders and to evaluate sex differences in the strength of the comorbid associations. Data were derived from a large national sample of the United States. Some 43,093 household and group quarters residents age 18 years and older participated in the 2001-2002 survey. Prevalence and associations of lifetime pathological gambling and other lifetime psychiatric disorders are presented. The diagnostic interview was the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Fifteen symptom items operationalized the 10 pathological gambling criteria. The lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.42%. Almost three quarters (73.2%) of pathological gamblers had an alcohol use disorder, 38.1% had a drug use disorder, 60.4% had nicotine dependence, 49.6% had a mood disorder, 41.3% had an anxiety disorder, and 60.8% had a personality disorder. A large majority of the associations between pathological gambling and substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were overwhelmingly positive and significant (p .05). Pathological gambling is highly comorbid with substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment for one condition should involve assessment and possible concomitant treatment for comorbid conditions.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                24 January 2017
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 51-63
                [ 1 ]Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center, University of Granada , Granada, Spain
                [ 2 ]Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Granada , Granada, Spain
                [ 3 ]Centre for Economic and International Studies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata” , Rome, Italy
                [ 4 ]Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL , Barcelona, Spain
                [ 5 ]Ciber Fisiopatología, Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Madrid, Spain
                [ 6 ]Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona , Barcelona, Spain
                [ 7 ]School of Psychology, University of Queensland , Brisbane, Australia
                [ 8 ]Department of Psychology, James Cook University , Singapore, Singapore
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Juan F. Navas; Departamento de Psicología Experimental, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain; Phone: +34 958243763; Fax: +34 958246239; E-mail: jfnavas@
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 78, Pages: 13
                Funding sources: JCP and JFN are supported by a grant from the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación; Convocatoria 2013 de Proyectos I+D de Excelencia) with reference number PSI2013-45055-P. JFN has been awarded with an individual research grant (Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, Programa FPU, reference number FPU13/00669). JCP is member of a RETICS (RD12/0028/0017) group, funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. TS is supported by grants from the Carlos III Health Institute (FIS PI14/00290 and CIBERobn) and co-funded by FEDER funds – a way to build Europe. CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn) is an initiative of ISCIII. SJ-M is co-funded by FEDER funds/European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) – a way to build Europe and by a Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad grant (PSI2015-68701-R).
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