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      Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

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          Abstract

          There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Multifunctional carbon nanotube yarns by downsizing an ancient technology.

          By introducing twist during spinning of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from nanotube forests to make multi-ply, torque-stabilized yarns, we achieve yarn strengths greater than 460 megapascals. These yarns deform hysteretically over large strain ranges, reversibly providing up to 48% energy damping, and are nearly as tough as fibers used for bulletproof vests. Unlike ordinary fibers and yarns, these nanotube yarns are not degraded in strength by overhand knotting. They also retain their strength and flexibility after heating in air at 450 degrees C for an hour or when immersed in liquid nitrogen. High creep resistance and high electrical conductivity are observed and are retained after polymer infiltration, which substantially increases yarn strength.
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            Nanotechnological strategies for engineering complex tissues.

            Tissue engineering aims at developing functional substitutes for damaged tissues and organs. Before transplantation, cells are generally seeded on biomaterial scaffolds that recapitulate the extracellular matrix and provide cells with information that is important for tissue development. Here we review the nanocomposite nature of the extracellular matrix, describe the design considerations for different tissues and discuss the impact of nanostructures on the properties of scaffolds and their uses in monitoring the behaviour of engineered tissues. We also examine the different nanodevices used to trigger certain processes for tissue development, and offer our view on the principal challenges and prospects of applying nanotechnology in tissue engineering.
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              Muscular thin films for building actuators and powering devices.

              We demonstrate the assembly of biohybrid materials from engineered tissues and synthetic polymer thin films. The constructs were built by culturing neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes on polydimethylsiloxane thin films micropatterned with extracellular matrix proteins to promote spatially ordered, two-dimensional myogenesis. The constructs, termed muscular thin films, adopted functional, three-dimensional conformations when released from a thermally sensitive polymer substrate and were designed to perform biomimetic tasks by varying tissue architecture, thin-film shape, and electrical-pacing protocol. These centimeter-scale constructs perform functions as diverse as gripping, pumping, walking, and swimming with fine spatial and temporal control and generating specific forces as high as 4 millinewtons per square millimeter.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                25 May 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Self-powered Actuation, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University , Seoul, 04763, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Physiology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine , Suwon, 16419, Korea
                [3 ]The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas , Richardson, TX 75083, USA
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep26687
                10.1038/srep26687
                4879622
                27220918
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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