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      Synergistic infection of two viruses MCMV and SCMV increases the accumulations of both MCMV and MCMV-derived siRNAs in maize

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          Abstract

          The co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) can cause maize lethal necrosis. However, the mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction between these two viruses remains elusive. In this study, we found that the co-infection of MCMV and SCMV increased the accumulation of MCMV. Moreover, the profiles of virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs) from MCMV and SCMV in single- and co-infected maize plants were obtained by high-throughput sequencing. Our data showed that synergistic infection of MCMV and SCMV increased remarkably the accumulation of vsiRNAs from MCMV, which were mainly 22 and 21 nucleotides in length. The single-nucleotide resolution maps of vsiRNAs revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously but heterogeneously distributed throughout MCMV and SCMV genomic RNAs, respectively. Moreover, we predicted and annotated dozens of host transcript genes targeted by vsiRNAs. Our results also showed that maize DCLs and several AGOs RNAs were differentially accumulated in maize plants with different treatments (mock, single or double inoculations), which were associated with the accumulation of vsiRNAs. Our findings suggested possible roles of vsiRNAs in the synergistic interaction of MCMV and SCMV in maize plants.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Sorting of small RNAs into Arabidopsis argonaute complexes is directed by the 5' terminal nucleotide.

           F Ni,  Yemiao Chen,  Shan Li (2008)
          Argonaute (AGO) proteins recruit small RNAs to form the core of RNAi effector complexes. Arabidopsis encodes ten AGO proteins and a large network of small RNAs. How these small RNAs are sorted into specific AGO complexes remains largely unknown. We have cataloged small RNAs resident in four AGO complexes. We found that AGO2 and AGO4 preferentially recruit small RNAs with a 5' terminal adenosine, whereas AGO1 harbors microRNAs (miRNAs) that favor a 5' terminal uridine. AGO5 predominantly binds small RNAs that initiate with cytosine. Changing the 5' terminal nucleotide of an miRNA predictably redirected it into a different AGO complex and alters its biological activity. These results reveal a role for small RNA sequences in assorting among AGO complexes. This suggests that specialization of AGO complexes might involve remodeling the 5' end-binding pocket to accept certain small RNA sequences, perhaps explaining the evolutionary drive for miRNAs to initiate with uridine.
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            Antiviral immunity directed by small RNAs.

            Plants and invertebrates can protect themselves from viral infection through RNA silencing. This antiviral immunity involves production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) and results in specific silencing of viruses by viRNA-guided effector complexes. The proteins required for viRNA production as well as several key downstream components of the antiviral immunity pathway have been identified in plants, flies, and worms. Meanwhile, viral mechanisms to suppress this small RNA-directed immunity by viruses are being elucidated, thereby illuminating an ongoing molecular arms race that likely impacts the evolution of both viral and host genomes.
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              MicroRNA Targets in Drosophila

              Additional data files Additional data file 1, 2, 3 and 4. Supplementary Material Additional data file 1 Additional data file 1 Click here for additional data file Additional data file 2 Additional data file 2 Click here for additional data file Additional data file 3 Additional data file 3 Click here for additional data file Additional data file 4 Additional data file 4 Click here for additional data file
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                11 February 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Agro-biotechnology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory for Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University , Beijing 100193, China
                [2 ]Beijing Entry-exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau , Beijing 100026, China
                [3 ]Chinese Society of Inspection and Quarantine , Beijing 100026, China
                Author notes
                Article
                srep20520
                10.1038/srep20520
                4808907
                26864602
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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