Purpose: We aimed to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and female sex work, and the association between sociodemographic, obstetric, and behavioral characteristics of female sex workers and C. trachomatis infection.
Methods: Through a case–control study design, we studied 201 female sex workers and 201 age-matched women without sex work in Durango City, Mexico. C. trachomatis DNA was detected in cervical swab samples using polymerase chain reaction.
Results: C. trachomatis DNA was detected in 32 (15.9%) of the 201 cases and in 6 (3.0%) of the 201 controls (odds ratio [OR] = 6.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–15.0; P < 0.001). The frequency of infection with C. trachomatis in female sex workers did not vary ( P > 0.05) regardless of the history of pregnancies, deliveries, cesarean sections, or miscarriages. Regression analysis of the behavioral characteristics showed that infection with C. trachomatis was associated only with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.0–5.71; P = 0.04).
Conclusions: We conclude that C. trachomatis infection is associated with female sex work in Durango City, Mexico. This is the first age-matched case–control study on the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in female sex workers in Mexico using detection of C. trachomatis DNA in cervical samples.