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      Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii and β-galactomannan oligosaccharide on porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli F4 (K88)


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          Probiotic and prebiotics, often called "immune-enhancing" feed additives, are believed to deal with pathogens, preventing the need of an immune response and reducing tissue damage. In this study, we investigated if a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM) had a similar protective role compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii ( Scb), a proven probiotic, in the context of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. ETEC causes inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage in piglets, resulting in large economic loses worldwide. We observed that Scb and βGM products inhibited in vitro adhesion of ETEC on cell surface of porcine intestinal IPI-2I cells. Our data showed that Scb and βGM decreased the mRNA ETEC-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, GM-CSF and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL8 on intestinal IPI-2I. Furthermore, we investigated the putative immunomodulatory role of Scb and βGM on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) per se and under infection conditions. We observed a slight up-regulation of mRNA for TNF-α and CCR7 receptor after co-incubation of DC with Scb and βGM. However, no differences were found in DC activation upon ETEC infection and Scb or βGM co-culture. Therefore, our results indicate that, similar to probiotic Scb, prebiotic βGM may protect intestinal epithelial cells against intestinal pathogens. Finally, although these products may modulate DC activation, their effect under ETEC challenge conditions remains to be elucidated.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut.

           David Artis (2008)
          Mucosal surfaces such as the intestinal tract are continuously exposed to both potential pathogens and beneficial commensal microorganisms. This creates a requirement for a homeostatic balance between tolerance and immunity that represents a unique regulatory challenge to the mucosal immune system. Recent findings suggest that intestinal epithelial cells, although once considered a simple physical barrier, are a crucial cell lineage for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. This Review discusses recent findings that identify a cardinal role for epithelial cells in sampling the intestinal microenvironment, discriminating pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and influencing the function of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.
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            Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

            Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in pig tissues using SYBR green qPCR

              Background Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a method for rapid and reliable quantification of mRNA transcription. Internal standards such as reference genes are used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of mRNA transcription level. Selection of high quality reference genes is of crucial importance for the interpretation of data generated by real-time qPCR. Results In this study nine commonly used reference genes were investigated in 17 different pig tissues using real-time qPCR with SYBR green. The genes included beta-actin (ACTB), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), TATA box binding protein (TPB)and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ). The stability of these reference genes in different pig tissues was investigated using the geNorm application. The range of expression stability in the genes analysed was (from the most stable to the least stable): ACTB/RPL4, TBP, HPRT, HMBS, YWHAZ, SDHA, B2M and GAPDH. Conclusion Expression stability varies greatly between genes. ACTB, RPL4, TPB and HPRT1 were found to have the highest stability across tissues. Based on both expression stability and expression level, our data suggest that ACTB and RPL4 are good reference genes for high abundant transcripts while TPB and HPRT1 are good reference genes for low abundant transcripts in expression studies across different pig tissues.

                Author and article information

                Vet Res
                Veterinary Research
                BioMed Central
                25 January 2012
                : 43
                : 1
                : 4
                [1 ]Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries, Animal Production, IRTA, Constantí, Spain
                [2 ]Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UR1282, Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, F-37380 Nouzilly, Tours, France
                [3 ]Immunologia Aplicada, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (IBB), University Autonomous of Barcelona, UAB, Bellaterra, Spain
                Copyright ©2012 Badia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Veterinary medicine


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