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      Polyphenols contribute to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Phyllanthus debilis plant in-vitro


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          Phyllanthus debilis (Elapitawakka) is a medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Present study was carried out to evaluate in-vitro anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative activity of the water extracts of aerial parts (AP) and roots (RP) of P. debilis plant and the role of polyphenolic compounds in view of its medicinal use.


          Total polyphenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content of the extracts were quantified. DPPH, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging potentials and the total antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing power were determined to evaluate antioxidant capacity. Anti-proliferative activity was assessed with MTT assay for Human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and normal rat liver cells (CC1) after 24 h exposure to the plant extracts. DPPH and MTT assays were carried out for AP and RP extracts after removal of polyphenols to assess the contribution of polyphenols on antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of Phyllanthus debilis.


          Flavonoid content of the AP extract was significantly lower than that of RP ( P < 0.001) while no significant difference was observed in polyphenolic as well as in proanthocyanidin contents. All the assays except for phosphomolybdate assay demonstrated that the RP extract had higher antioxidant capacity ( p < 0.001) compared to AP. Further, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity were lower ( p < 0.001) in AP and RP in the absence of polyphenols compared to the crude extract.


          Root contains higher levels of flavonoids than the aerial part. Moreover, the presence of polyphenols is required for antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of both AP and RP.

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          Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

          Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.
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            In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India

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              Hydrogen peroxide – production, fate and role in redox signaling of tumor cells

              Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in various signal transduction pathways and cell fate decisions. The mechanism of the so called “redox signaling” includes the H2O2-mediated reversible oxidation of redox sensitive cysteine residues in enzymes and transcription factors thereby altering their activities. Depending on its intracellular concentration and localization, H2O2 exhibits either pro- or anti-apoptotic activities. In comparison to normal cells, cancer cells are characterized by an increased H2O2 production rate and an impaired redox balance thereby affecting the microenvironment as well as the anti-tumoral immune response. This article reviews the current knowledge about the intracellular production of H2O2 along with redox signaling pathways mediating either the growth or apoptosis of tumor cells. In addition it will be discussed how the targeting of H2O2-linked sources and/or signaling components involved in tumor progression and survival might lead to novel therapeutic targets.

                Author and article information

                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1 September 2016
                1 September 2016
                : 16
                : 1
                : 339
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Colombo, Faculty of Medicine, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Colombo, Faculty of Medicine, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 2 July 2016
                : 25 August 2016
                Funded by: University of Colombo
                Award ID: AP/3/2/2014/RG/11
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                phyllanthus debilis,polyphenols,antioxidant activity,anti-proliferative activity,rd,cc1


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