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      Mycobacterial Glycolipid Cord Factor Trehalose 6,6’-Dimycolate Causes a Decrease in Serum Cortisol during the Granulomatous Response

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          Abstract

          Serum cortisol levels were evaluated in mice following intravenous administration of purified mycobacterial glycolipid trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM). C57BL/6 mice develop lung granulomas in response to TDM, while A/J mice are deficient in this process. Administration of TDM to C57BL/6 mice led to a rapid reduction in serum cortisol, concurrent with initiation of the granulomatous response and cytokine and chemokine mRNA induction. Cortisol levels were lowest on day 5 after TDM administration, but there was significant production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β messages. Granuloma formation and full immune responsiveness to TDM were only apparent upon a sufficient decrease in levels of systemic cortisol. Treatment of the C57BL/6 mice with hydrocortisone abolished inflammatory responses. Histologically nonresponding A/J mice exhibited higher constitutive serum cortisol and demonstrated different kinetics of cortisol reduction upon administration of TDM. A/J mice demonstrated hyperplastic morphology in the suprarenal gland with a high degree of vacuolization in the medullary region and activation of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. The A/J mice were dysregulated with respect to cytokine responses thought to be necessary during granuloma formation. The high constitutive serum cortisol in the A/J mice may therefore contribute to pulmonary immunoresponsiveness and the establishment of an environment counterproductive to the initiation of granulomatous responses. The identification of a mycobacterial glycolipid able to influence serum cortisol levels is unique and is discussed in relation to immunopathology during tuberculosis disease.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces foreign-body- and hypersensitivity-type granulomas in mice.

          Granulomatous inflammation is characterized morphologically by a compact organized collection of macrophages and their derivatives. It is classified as either a hypersensitivity type or a foreign-body type. Lipid components of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall participate in the pathogenesis of infection. Strains of M. tuberculosis have cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate [TDM]) on their surface. To clarify host responses to TDM, including immunogenicity and pathogenicity, we have analyzed the footpad reaction, histopathology, and cytokine profiles of experimental granulomatous lesions in immunized and unimmunized mice challenged with TDM. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time that TDM can induce both foreign-body-type (nonimmune) and hypersensitivity-type (immune) granulomas by acting as a nonspecific irritant and T-cell-dependent antigen. Immunized mice challenged with TDM developed more severe lesions than unimmunized mice. At the active lesion, we found monocyte chemotactic, proinflammatory, and immunoregulatory cytokines. The level was enhanced in immunized mice challenged with TDM. This result implies that both nonimmune and immune mechanisms participate in granulomatous inflammation induced by mycobacterial infection. Taken together with a previous report, this study shows that TDM is a pleiotropic molecule against the host and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
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            Role of trehalose dimycolate in recruitment of cells and modulation of production of cytokines and NO in tuberculosis.

            Mice treated with viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis with no glycolipid trehalose dimycolate (TDM) on the outer cell wall (delipidated M. tuberculosis) by intraperitoneal or intratracheal inoculation presented an intense recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells into the peritoneal cavity and an acute inflammatory reaction in the lungs, respectively. In addition, lung lesions were resolved around the 32nd day after intratracheal inoculation. TDM-loaded biodegradable poly-DL-lactide-coglycolide microspheres as well as TDM-coated charcoal particles induced an intense inflammatory reaction. In addition, high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-12, IL-10, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IL-4 production were detected in lung cells, and nitric oxide (NO) production was high in culture supernatants of bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These in vivo data were confirmed by in vitro experiments using peritoneal macrophages cultured in the presence of TDM adsorbed onto coverslips. High levels of IFN-gamma, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-10, and NO were detected in the culture supernatants. Our results suggest that TDM contributes to persistence of infection through production of cytokines, which are important for the recruitment of inflammatory cells and maintenance of a granulomatous reaction. In addition, our findings are important for a better understanding of the immunostimulatory activity of TDM and its possible use as an adjuvant in experiments using DNA vaccine or gene therapy against tuberculosis.
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              Interferon gamma inhibits interleukin 10 production by monocytes

              Interleukin 10 (IL-10) was first described for its ability to inhibit interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production. Herein, we studied the balance between IFN-gamma and IL-10 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan (SAC) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Monocyte depletion reduced IL-10 production by 90% and resulted in an increased IFN-gamma production. Addition of anti-IL-10 antibody to PBMC cultures also strongly increased IFN-gamma production. In contrast, among various cytokines, only IFN-gamma strongly reduced IL-10 synthesis by SAC- or LPS- activated PBMC and monocytes. Thus, IFN-gamma has proinflammatory effects through the combination of two mechanisms: (a) induction of early tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-1 beta synthesis; and (b) inhibition of the delayed production of IL-10, an inhibitor of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synthesis. Taken together, the present data indicate that IFN-gamma and IL-10 antagonize each other's production and function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2002
                May 2003
                16 May 2003
                : 10
                : 5
                : 270-282
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                69971 PMC2556037 Neuroimmunomodulation 2002–03;10:270–282
                10.1159/000069971
                PMC2556037
                12759564
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, References: 50, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Paper

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