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      Smartphone addiction proneness in relation to sleep and morningness–eveningness in German adolescents

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          Abstract

          Background

          Mobile phones are an important part of adolescents’ life. In this study, the relationships among smartphone addiction, age, gender, and chronotype of German adolescents were examined.

          Materials and methods

          Two studies focused on two different measures of smartphone addiction. The Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale ( SAPS) was applied to 342 younger adolescents (13.39 ± 1.77; 176 boys, 165 girls, and 1 not indicated) in Study 1 and the Smartphone Addiction Scale was applied to 208 older adolescents (17.07 ± 4.28; 146 girls and 62 boys) in Study 2, both samples in southwest Germany. In addition, a demographic questionnaire and the Composite Scale of Morningness ( CSM) and sleep measures were implemented.

          Results

          The most remarkable result of this study was that morningness–eveningness (as measured by CSM scores) is an important predictor for smartphone addiction; even stronger than sleep duration. Evening oriented adolescents scored higher on both smartphone addiction scales. In addition, gender is an important predictor for smartphone addiction and girls are more prone to become addicted. In addition, while sleep duration on weekdays negatively predicted SAPS, age, sleep duration on weekends, and midpoint of sleep on weekdays and weekends did not predicted smartphone addiction in both scales. The analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant effects of the covariates gender and age in both studies, as well as the main effect of chronotype. According to the t-test results, girls had higher scores than boys in smartphone addiction.

          Conclusion

          Evening types and girls are more prone to become smartphone addicted.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Circadian typology: a comprehensive review.

          The interest in the systematic study of the circadian typology (CT) is relatively recent and has developed rapidly in the two last decades. All the existing data suggest that this individual difference affects our biological and psychological functioning, not only in health, but also in disease. In the present study, we review the current literature concerning the psychometric properties and validity of CT measures as well as individual, environmental and genetic factors that influence the CT. We present a brief overview of the biological markers that are used to define differences between CT groups (sleep-wake cycle, body temperature, cortisol and melatonin), and we assess the implications for CT and adjustment to shiftwork and jet lag. We also review the differences between CT in terms of cognitive abilities, personality traits and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. When necessary, we have emphasized the methodological limitations that exist today and suggested some future avenues of work in order to overcome these. This is a new field of interest to professionals in many different areas (research, labor, academic and clinical), and this review provides a state of the art discussion to allow professionals to integrate chronobiological aspects of human behavior into their daily practice.
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            Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college students

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              • Record: found
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              Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)

              Objective The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. Methods A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. Results Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale “disturbance of reality testing” was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05), education (p<0.05), and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001) in SAS. Conclusions This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                06 August 2016
                September 2016
                : 5
                : 3
                : 465-473
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Institute of Science, Geography and Technology, University of Education Heidelberg , Heidelberg, Germany
                [ 2 ]Department of Biology, University of Tübingen , Tübingen, Germany
                [ 3 ]Faculty of Education, Department of Special Education, Sakarya University , Hendek, Turkey
                [ 4 ]Faculty of Education, Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies, Sakarya University , Hendek, Turkey
                [ 5 ]Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, Sakarya University , Hendek, Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Christoph Randler; Institute of Science, Geography and Technology, University of Education Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 561-2, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Phone: +49 6221 477344; E-mail: christoph.randler@ 123456uni-tuebingen.de
                Article
                10.1556/2006.5.2016.056
                5264414
                27499228
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 0
                Funding
                Funding sources: No financial support was received for this study.
                Categories
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