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      Identification of a candidate tumour suppressor gene, MMAC1, at chromosome 10q23.3 that is mutated in multiple advanced cancers.

      Nature genetics

      Tumor Cells, Cultured, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, analysis, RNA, Neoplasm, RNA, Messenger, genetics, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Neoplasms, Mutation, Molecular Sequence Data, Mice, Male, Humans, Glioblastoma, Genes, Tumor Suppressor, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, DNA Mutational Analysis, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10, Cells, Cultured, Animals, Amino Acid Sequence, Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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          Abstract

          Deletions involving regions of chromosome 10 occur in the vast majority (> 90%) of human glioblastoma multiformes. A region at chromosome 10q23-24 was implicated to contain a tumour suppressor gene and the identification of homozygous deletions in four glioma cell lines further refined the location. We have identified a gene, designated MMAC1, that spans these deletions and encodes a widely expressed 5.5-kb mRNA. The predicted MMAC1 protein contains sequence motifs with significant homology to the catalytic domain of protein phosphatases and to the cytoskeletal proteins, tensin and auxilin. MMAC1 coding-region mutations were observed in a number of glioma, prostate, kidney and breast carcinoma cell lines or tumour specimens. Our results identify a strong candidate tumour suppressor gene at chromosome 10q23.3, whose loss of function appears to be associated with the oncogenesis of multiple human cancers.

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          Most cited references 20

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          An analysis of 5'-noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs.

          5'-Noncoding sequences have been compiled from 699 vertebrate mRNAs. (GCC) GCCA/GCCATGG emerges as the consensus sequence for initiation of translation in vertebrates. The most highly conserved position in that motif is the purine in position -3 (three nucleotides upstream from the ATG codon); 97% of vertebrate mRNAs have a purine, most often A, in that position. The periodical occurrence of G (in positions -3, -6, -9) is discussed. Upstream ATG codons occur in fewer than 10% of vertebrate mRNAs-at-large; a notable exception are oncogene transcripts, two-thirds of which have ATG codons preceding the start of the major open reading frame. The leader sequences of most vertebrate mRNAs fall in the size range of 20 to 100 nucleotides. The significance of shorter and longer 5'-noncoding sequences is discussed.
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            The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds.

             K Offit,  S Merajver,  F Couch (1996)
            Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy among women in developed countries. Because family history remains the strongest single predictor of breast cancer risk, attention has focused on the role of highly penetrant, dominantly inherited genes in cancer-prone kindreds (1). BRCA1 was localized to chromosome 17 through analysis of a set of high-risk kindreds (2), and then identified four years later by a positional cloning strategy (3). BRCA2 was mapped to chromosomal 13q at about the same time (4). Just fifteen months later, Wooster et al. (5) reported a partial BRCA2 sequence and six mutations predicted to cause truncation of the BRCA2 protein. While these findings provide strong evidence that the identified gene corresponds to BRCA2, only two thirds of the coding sequence and 8 out of 27 exons were isolated and screened; consequently, several questions remained unanswered regarding the nature of BRCA2 and the frequency of mutations in 13q-linked families. We have now determined the complete coding sequence and exonic structure of BRCA2 (GenBank accession #U43746), and examined its pattern of expression. Here, we provide sequences for a set of PCR primers sufficient to screen the entire coding sequence of BRCA2 using genomic DNA. We also report a mutational analysis of BRCA2 in families selected on the basis of linkage analysis and/or the presence of one or more cases of male breast cancer. Together with the specific mutations described previously, our data provide preliminary insight into the BRCA2 mutation profile.
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              Localization of the gene for Cowden disease to chromosome 10q22-23.

              Cowden disease (CD) (MIM 158350), or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome with a high risk of breast cancer. Its clinical features include a wide array of abnormalities but the main characteristics are hamartomas of the skin, breast, thyroid, oral mucosa and intestinal epithelium. The pathognomonic hamartomatous features of CD include multiple smooth facial papules, acral keratosis and multiple oral papillomas. The pathological hallmark of the facial papules are multiple trichilemmomas. Expression of the disease is variable and penetrance of the dermatological lesions is assumed to be virtually complete by the age of twenty. Central nervous system manifestations of CD were emphasized only recently and include megalencephaly, epilepsy and dysplastic gangliocytomas of the cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease, LDD). Early diagnosis is important since female patients with CD are at risk of developing breast cancer. Other lesions include benign and malignant disease of the thyroid, intestinal polyps and genitourinary abnormalities. To localize the gene for CD, an autosomal genome scan was performed. A total of 12 families were examined, resulting in a maximum lod score of 8.92 at theta = 0.02 with the marker D10S573 located on chromosome 10q22-23.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/ng0497-356
                9090379

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