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      Deep semi-nonnegative matrix factorization with elastic preserving for data representation

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          Learning the parts of objects by non-negative matrix factorization.

          Is perception of the whole based on perception of its parts? There is psychological and physiological evidence for parts-based representations in the brain, and certain computational theories of object recognition rely on such representations. But little is known about how brains or computers might learn the parts of objects. Here we demonstrate an algorithm for non-negative matrix factorization that is able to learn parts of faces and semantic features of text. This is in contrast to other methods, such as principal components analysis and vector quantization, that learn holistic, not parts-based, representations. Non-negative matrix factorization is distinguished from the other methods by its use of non-negativity constraints. These constraints lead to a parts-based representation because they allow only additive, not subtractive, combinations. When non-negative matrix factorization is implemented as a neural network, parts-based representations emerge by virtue of two properties: the firing rates of neurons are never negative and synaptic strengths do not change sign.
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            Graph Regularized Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Data Representation.

            Matrix factorization techniques have been frequently applied in information retrieval, computer vision, and pattern recognition. Among them, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has received considerable attention due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of naturally occurring data whose representation may be parts based in the human brain. On the other hand, from the geometric perspective, the data is usually sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional ambient space. One then hopes to find a compact representation,which uncovers the hidden semantics and simultaneously respects the intrinsic geometric structure. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, called Graph Regularized Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GNMF), for this purpose. In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed to encode the geometrical information and we seek a matrix factorization, which respects the graph structure. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world problems.
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              Convex and semi-nonnegative matrix factorizations.

               Tao Li,  T. Jordan,  Chris Ding (2009)
              We present several new variations on the theme of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Considering factorizations of the form X=FG(T), we focus on algorithms in which G is restricted to containing nonnegative entries, but allowing the data matrix X to have mixed signs, thus extending the applicable range of NMF methods. We also consider algorithms in which the basis vectors of F are constrained to be convex combinations of the data points. This is used for a kernel extension of NMF. We provide algorithms for computing these new factorizations and we provide supporting theoretical analysis. We also analyze the relationships between our algorithms and clustering algorithms, and consider the implications for sparseness of solutions. Finally, we present experimental results that explore the properties of these new methods.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Multimedia Tools and Applications
                Multimed Tools Appl
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1380-7501
                1573-7721
                January 2021
                September 09 2020
                January 2021
                : 80
                : 2
                : 1707-1724
                Article
                10.1007/s11042-020-09766-w
                © 2021

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