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      Molecular cloning and expression analyses of a new gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase from Taxus × media

      , , , , , , ,

      Biologia Plantarum

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 13

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          MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software

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            Isoprenoid biosynthesis: the evolution of two ancient and distinct pathways across genomes.

            Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) is the central intermediate in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, the most ancient and diverse class of natural products. Two distinct routes of IPP biosynthesis occur in nature: the mevalonate pathway and the recently discovered deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) pathway. The evolutionary history of the enzymes involved in both routes and the phylogenetic distribution of their genes across genomes suggest that the mevalonate pathway is germane to archaebacteria, that the DXP pathway is germane to eubacteria, and that eukaryotes have inherited their genes for IPP biosynthesis from prokaryotes. The occurrence of genes specific to the DXP pathway is restricted to plastid-bearing eukaryotes, indicating that these genes were acquired from the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids. However, the individual phylogenies of these genes, with only one exception, do not provide evidence for a specific affinity between the plant genes and their cyanobacterial homologues. The results suggest that lateral gene transfer between eubacteria subsequent to the origin of plastids has played a major role in the evolution of this pathway.
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              Crosstalk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

              In plants, the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the central intermediates in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, is compartmentalized: the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, which is localized to the cytosol, is responsible for the synthesis of sterols, certain sesquiterpenes, and the side chain of ubiquinone; in contrast, the recently discovered MVA-independent pathway, which operates in plastids, is involved in providing the precursors for monoterpenes, certain sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, carotenoids, and the side chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone. Specific inhibitors of the MVA pathway (lovastatin) and the MVA-independent pathway (fosmidomycin) were used to perturb biosynthetic flux in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The interaction between both pathways was studied at the transcriptional level by using GeneChip (Affymetrix) microarrays and at the metabolite level by assaying chlorophylls, carotenoids, and sterols. Treatment of seedlings with lovastatin resulted in a transient decrease in sterol levels and a transient increase in carotenoid as well as chlorophyll levels. After the initial drop, sterol amounts in lovastatin-treated seedlings recovered to levels above controls. As a response to fosmidomycin treatment, a transient increase in sterol levels was observed, whereas chlorophyll and carotenoid amounts decreased dramatically when compared with controls. At 96 h after fosmidomycin addition, the levels of all metabolites assayed (sterols, chlorophylls, and carotenoids) were substantially lower than in controls. Interestingly, these inhibitor-mediated changes were not reflected in altered gene expression levels of the genes involved in sterol, chlorophyll, and carotenoid metabolism. The lack of correlation between gene expression patterns and the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites indicates that posttranscriptional processes may play an important role in regulating flux through isoprenoid metabolic pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biologia Plantarum
                Biol Plant
                Springer Nature
                0006-3134
                1573-8264
                September 2006
                September 2006
                : 50
                : 3
                : 359-366
                Article
                10.1007/s10535-006-0050-0
                © 2006
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