Blog
About

6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Factors Influencing the Loss of β-Cell Mass in Islet Transplantation

      1 , 2

      Cell Transplantation

      Cognizant, LLC

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 72

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen.

          Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year. Seven consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes and a history of severe hypoglycemia and metabolic instability underwent islet transplantation in conjunction with a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen consisting of sirolimus, tacrolimus, and daclizumab. Islets were isolated by ductal perfusion with cold, purified collagenase, digested and purified in xenoprotein-free medium, and transplanted immediately by means of a percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization. All seven patients quickly attained sustained insulin independence after transplantation of a mean (+/-SD) islet mass of 11,547+/-1604 islet equivalents per kilogram of body weight (median follow-up, 11.9 months; range, 4.4 to 14.9). All recipients required islets from two donor pancreases, and one required a third transplant from two donors to achieve sustained insulin independence. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin values were normal after transplantation in all recipients. The mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (a measure of fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations) was significantly decreased after the attainment of insulin independence (from 198+/-32 mg per deciliter [11.1+/-1.8 mmol per liter] before transplantation to 119+/-37 mg per deciliter [6.7+/-2.1 mmol per liter] after the first transplantation and 51+/-30 mg per deciliter [2.8+/-1.7 mmol per liter] after the attainment of insulin independence; P<0.001). There were no further episodes of hypoglycemic coma. Complications were minor, and there were no significant increases in lipid concentrations during follow-up. Our observations in patients with type 1 diabetes indicate that islet transplantation can result in insulin independence with excellent metabolic control when glucocorticoid-free immunosuppression is combined with the infusion of an adequate islet mass.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Five-year follow-up after clinical islet transplantation.

            Islet transplantation can restore endogenous beta-cell function to subjects with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-five patients received an islet transplant in Edmonton as of 1 November 2004. Their mean age was 42.9 +/- 1.2 years, their mean duration of diabetes was 27.1 +/- 1.3 years, and 57% were women. The main indication was problematic hypoglycemia. Forty-four patients completed the islet transplant as defined by insulin independence, and three further patients received >16,000 islet equivalents (IE)/kg but remained on insulin and are deemed complete. Those who became insulin independent received a total of 799,912 +/- 30,220 IE (11,910 +/- 469 IE/kg). Five subjects became insulin independent after one transplant. Fifty-two patients had two transplants, and 11 subjects had three transplants. In the completed patients, 5-year follow-up reveals that the majority ( approximately 80%) have C-peptide present post-islet transplant, but only a minority ( approximately 10%) maintain insulin independence. The median duration of insulin independence was 15 months (interquartile range 6.2-25.5). The HbA(1c) (A1C) level was well controlled in those off insulin (6.4% [6.1-6.7]) and in those back on insulin but C-peptide positive (6.7% [5.9-7.5]) and higher in those who lost all graft function (9.0% [6.7-9.3]) (P < 0.05). Those who resumed insulin therapy did not appear more insulin resistant compared with those off insulin and required half their pretransplant daily dose of insulin but had a lower increment of C-peptide to a standard meal challenge (0.44 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.06 nmol/l, P < 0.001). The Hypoglycemic score and lability index both improved significantly posttransplant. In the 128 procedures performed, bleeding occurred in 15 and branch portal vein thrombosis in 5 subjects. Complications of immunosuppressive therapy included mouth ulcers, diarrhea, anemia, and ovarian cysts. Of the 47 completed patients, 4 required retinal laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy and 5 patients with microalbuminuria developed macroproteinuria. The need for multiple antihypertensive medications increased from 6% pretransplant to 42% posttransplant, while the use of statin therapy increased from 23 to 83% posttransplant. There was no change in the neurothesiometer scores pre- versus posttransplant. In conclusion, islet transplantation can relieve glucose instability and problems with hypoglycemia. C-peptide secretion was maintained in the majority of subjects for up to 5 years, although most reverted to using some insulin. The results, though promising, still point to the need for further progress in the availability of transplantable islets, improving islet engraftment, preserving islet function, and reducing toxic immunosuppression.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Relation between antioxidant enzyme gene expression and antioxidative defense status of insulin-producing cells.

               M Tiedge,  S Lenzen,  S Lortz (1997)
              Antioxidant enzyme expression was determined in rat pancreatic islets and RINm5F insulin-producing cells on the level of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in comparison with 11 other rat tissues. Although superoxide dismutase expression was in the range of 30% of the liver values, the expression of the hydrogen peroxide-inactivating enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase was extremely low, in the range of 5% of the liver. Pancreatic islets but not RINm5F cells expressed an additional phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase that exerted protective effects against lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane. Regression analysis for mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activities from 12 rat tissues revealed that the mRNA levels determine the enzyme activities of the tissues. The induction of cellular stress by high glucose, high oxygen, and heat shock treatment did not affect antioxidant enzyme expression in rat pancreatic islets or in RINm5F cells. Thus insulin-producing cells cannot adapt the low antioxidant enzyme activity levels to typical situations of cellular stress by an upregulation of gene expression. Through stable transfection, however, we were able to increase catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression in RINm5F cells, resulting in enzyme activities more than 100-fold higher than in nontransfected controls. Catalase-transfected RINm5F cells showed a 10-fold greater resistance toward hydrogen peroxide toxicity, whereas glutathione peroxidase overexpression was much less effective. Thus inactivation of hydrogen peroxide through catalase seems to be a step of critical importance for the removal of reactive oxygen species in insulin-producing cells. Overexpression of catalase may therefore be an effective means of preventing the toxic action of reactive oxygen species.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Transplantation
                Cell Transplant
                Cognizant, LLC
                0963-6897
                1555-3892
                June 22 2017
                June 22 2017
                January 2007
                : 16
                : 1
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada
                [2 ]Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada
                Article
                10.3727/000000007783464461
                © 2007

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

                Comments

                Comment on this article