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      Ultrafast synthesis and sintering of materials in a single running experiment approach by using electric fields


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          Processing of materials in the form of ceramics normally involves several steps including calcination at a relatively low temperature for synthesis of the end-product powder and sintering at a high temperature for densification. The work we have been developing introduces a novel approach enabling synthesis plus sintering of materials in a single running experiment by using electric fields, ending with dense ceramics that display grains noticeably finer than in conventional processing. This new paradigm is fully illustrated with experiments conducted on amorphous CaCu 3Ti 4O 12 precursor powder, shown to experience, on heating, crystallization through intermediate phases, followed by chemical reaction leading to synthesis of the end-product powder, plus densification depending on field adjustment. The processing time and furnace temperature are considerably reduced, demonstrating that enhanced synthesis and sintering rates applied under field input. Similar results found in Bi 2/3Cu 3Ti 4O 12 are also shown. The different factors that may contribute to this unique scenario, including Joule heating, defect generation, and reduction of free energy for nuclei formation promoted by the applied field, are briefly discussed. Overall, the findings we bring here are exclusive as they show an exploitable way that allows rapid processing of materials with good control over particle and grain coarsening.

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          Author and article information

          J Adv Ceram
          Journal of Advanced Ceramics
          Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (USA )
          01 June 2019
          01 October 2019
          : 8
          : 2
          : 265-277
          aSão Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo (USP), P.O. Box: 369, CEP: 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
          bGroup of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), CEP: 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: Jean-Claude M’PEKO, E-mail: peko@ 123456ifsc.usp.br , jcpeko@ 123456yahoo.com

          # Present address: Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), 13560-905 São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

          Copyright © The Author(s)

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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