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      Chronic Estradiol Exposure Modulates Thyroid Structure and Decreases T 4 and T 3 Serum Levels in Middle-Aged Female Rats

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          Abstract

          Objectives: In human medicine, estrogen is applied in prevention and treatment of health problems associated with the menopause. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chronic estradiol dipropionate (EDP) treatment on thyroid gland structure and function in middle-aged female rats. Methods: At 14 months of age, Wistar rats received 0.625 mg EDP/kg b.w./day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The peripheral and central zones of the thyroid were stereologically analyzed and the following morphometric parameters determined: volume density of follicles, follicular epithelium, interstitium and colloid, epithelial height and the index of activation rate. Serum levels of TSH, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> were determined by ELISA. Results: EDP treatment led to significant decreases in volume densities of follicles and follicular epithelium, epithelial height and index of activation rate (by 11%, p < 0.05; 23%, p < 0.005; 11%, p < 0.05 and 21%, p < 0.05, respectively) in comparison to control values. Hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells was noticed in 25% of EDP-treated animals. Serum levels of T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> were decreased (by 33%, p < 0.005 and 28%, p < 0.001, respectively), but TSH concentration was not significantly different from that of the controls. Conclusion: Chronic estradiol treatment significantly decreased volume density and height of centrally located follicular epithelium, follicular activation index and serum level of total thyroid hormones in middle-aged rats.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Is Estradiol a Genotoxic Mutagenic Carcinogen?

           J G Liehr (2000)
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            Role of thyroid hormones in human and laboratory animal reproductive health.

            The highly conserved nature of the thyroid gland and the thyroid system among mammalian species suggests it is critical to species survival. Studies show the thyroid system plays a critical role in the development of several organ systems, including the reproductive tract. Despite its highly conserved nature, the thyroid system can have widely different effects on reproduction and reproductive tract development in different species. The present review focuses on assessing the role of thyroid hormones in human reproduction and reproductive tract development and comparing it to the role of thyroid hormones in laboratory animal reproduction and reproductive tract development. The review also assesses the effects of thyroid dysfunction on reproductive tract development and function in humans and laboratory animals. Consideration of such information is important in designing, conducting, and interpreting studies to assess the potential effects of thyroid toxicants on reproduction and development.
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              Expression of the estrogen receptor in human thyroid neoplasms.

              The expression and quantitation of the estrogen receptor (ER) in human thyroid tumors were examined by biochemical, immunohistochemical, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. For this study, neoplasms, adenomatous goiters and adjacent normal thyroid tissues were obtained from 35 patients which included 10 cases of papillary carcinomas, 17 cases of adenomas and 8 cases of adenomatous goiters. Regardless of the histopathological subtype, ER was detected in 19% (5/27) of the neoplastic tissues with the mean value of ER content of 5.0 +/- 1.3 fmol/mg protein and the mean Kd value of 0.38 +/- 0.28 nM. ER was also detected, but at a lower concentration (2.8 +/- 1.6 fmol/mg protein), in the surrounding normal tissues. There was no significant difference between the neoplasms and adenomatous goiters with respect to the incidence of ER positivity and ER content. Furthermore, ER-positive specimens, as determined by both biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, also showed the expression of ER mRNA detected by RT-PCR method. These results demonstrate that both ER mRNA as well as ER protein are expressed in thyroid neoplasms. This suggests the possibility that estrogen may affect the tumorigenesis or the progression of some thyroid neoplasms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                January 2005
                20 January 2005
                : 63
                : 1
                : 48-54
                Affiliations
                aInstitute for Biological Research and bClinical Centre Dr Dragiša Mišović-Dedinje, Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro
                Article
                83139 Horm Res 2005;63:48–54
                10.1159/000083139
                15637454
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 32, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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