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      Prognostic Impact of the Pulmonary Artery Pulsatility Index in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Severe Mitral Regurgitation Undergoing Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Repair

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          Abstract

          Background: Pulmonary artery (PA) pulsatility index (PAPi), calculated as (PA systolic pressure – PA diastolic pressure)/right atrial pressure, emerged as a novel predictor of right ventricular failure in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction, advanced heart failure, and severe pulmonary hypertension. However, the prognostic utility of PAPi in transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) using the MitraClip® system has never been tested. Objective: To assess the prognostic impact of PAPi in patients with severe functional mitral regurgitation (MR) and chronic heart failure (CHF) undergoing TMVR. Methods: Consecutive patients with severe functional MR (grade 3+ or 4+) and CHF who underwent successful TMVR (MR ≤2+ at discharge) were enrolled and divided into 3 groups according to PAPi (A: low PAPi ≤2.2; B: intermediate PAPi 2.21–3.99; C: high PAPi ≥4.0). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and rehospitalization due to CHF during a mean follow-up period of 16 ± 4 months. The impact of PAPi on prognosis was assessed by a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis investigating independent predictors for outcome. Results: 78 patients (A: n = 27, B: n = 28, C: n = 23) at high operative risk (logistic EuroSCORE [European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation] 18.8 vs. 21.5 vs. 20.6%; nonsignificant) were enrolled. Mean PAPi was 1.6 ± 0.41 vs. 2.9 ± 0.53 vs. 6.8 ± 3.5; p < 0.001). Patients with low PAPi showed significantly higher rates of early rehospitalization for heart failure at the 30-day follow-up (14.9 vs. 7.1 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.04). In the long term, a significantly lower event-free survival for the combined primary endpoint was observed in the low PAPi group (44.4 vs. 25.0 vs. 20.3%; log-rank p = 0.016). ROC curve analysis revealed that optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved using a PAPi cutoff of 2.46 (sensitivity 83%, specificity 78.3%, area under the curve 0.82 [0.64–0.99]; p = 0.01). In Cox regression analysis, PAPi ≤2.46 was an independent predictor for the combined primary endpoint (hazard ratio 2.85; 95% confidence interval 1.15–7.04; p = 0.023). Conclusions: PAPi is strongly associated with clinical outcome among patients with CHF and functional MR undergoing TMVR. A PAPi value ≤2.46 predicts a worse prognosis independent of other important clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic factors. Therefore, PAPi may serve as a new parameter to improve patient selection for TMVR.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Percutaneous repair or surgery for mitral regurgitation.

          Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure that involves the percutaneous implantation of a clip that grasps and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the regurgitant jet. We randomly assigned 279 patients with moderately severe or severe (grade 3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation in a 2:1 ratio to undergo either percutaneous repair or conventional surgery for repair or replacement of the mitral valve. The primary composite end point for efficacy was freedom from death, from surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, and from grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation at 12 months. The primary safety end point was a composite of major adverse events within 30 days. At 12 months, the rates of the primary end point for efficacy were 55% in the percutaneous-repair group and 73% in the surgery group (P=0.007). The respective rates of the components of the primary end point were as follows: death, 6% in each group; surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, 20% versus 2%; and grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation, 21% versus 20%. Major adverse events occurred in 15% of patients in the percutaneous-repair group and 48% of patients in the surgery group at 30 days (P<0.001). At 12 months, both groups had improved left ventricular size, New York Heart Association functional class, and quality-of-life measures, as compared with baseline. Although percutaneous repair was less effective at reducing mitral regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure was associated with superior safety and similar improvements in clinical outcomes. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EVEREST II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00209274.).
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            Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation: A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

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              Survival in Patients with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                January 2021
                22 October 2020
                : 146
                : 1
                : 74-84
                Affiliations
                Bremer Institut für Herz- und Kreislaufforschung (BIHKF), Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Klinikum Links der Weser, Bremen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Rico Osteresch, Bremer Institut für Herz- und Kreislaufforschung (BIHKF), Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Klinikum Links der Weser, Senator-Wessling-Strasse 1, DE–28277 Bremen (Germany), rico.osteresch@klinikum-bremen-ldw.de
                Article
                510283 Cardiology 2021;146:74–84
                10.1159/000510283
                33091911
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Valvular Heart Disease: Research Article

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