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      Bebidas vegetales y leches de otros mamíferos Translated title: Vegetable drinks and other mammals milks

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          Abstract

          La alimentación ideal es la lactancia materna exclusiva durante los primeros seis meses de edad, en algunos lactantes se pueden indicar las fórmulas infantiles. Se plantean aspectos relacionados con la leche de cabra, de vaca, de búfala y bebidas artesanales o vegetales; cuyas diluciones y uso en niños son desconocidos. La leche de cada especie tiene una composición físico-química diferente acorde a sus crías. Las bebidas artesanales no están indicadas en niños menores de dos años de edad, tienen efectos colaterales como desnutrición, raquitismo, alcalosis metabólica, entre otras. En Venezuela no hay estudios publicados de leches artesanales o vegetales y de otros mamíferos diferentes a la vaca ni se conocen sus diluciones para ser usadas en niños, pero no se recomiendan en los lactantes porque su composición es inadecuada como única fuente alimentaria a esta edad.

          Translated abstract

          During their first six months, exclusive lactation represents the ideal nutrition for children. However, infant formula might be prescribed to some babies. There are aspects concerning some products which dilution and its use in children are unknown, such as goat, buffalo and cow milk, as well as artisanal or vegetable milk. According to the needs of its specie, each milk has its own physicochemical composition. Also, the variations of artisanal milk are contraindicated in children younger than two years of age; this is due to their collateral effects, including malnutrition, rickets, metabolic alkalosis, among others. In Venezuela there are no published research on artisanal and vegetable milk, nor other mammals different from the cow. As well, the dilution of these products, when being used in children, is unknown. Nevertheless, these products are not recommended as exclusive food source in lactating infants of this age, due to their inappropriate composition.

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          Most cited references46

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          Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.

          (2012)
          Breastfeeding and human milk are the normative standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Given the documented short- and long-term medical and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding, infant nutrition should be considered a public health issue and not only a lifestyle choice. The American Academy of Pediatrics reaffirms its recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Medical contraindications to breastfeeding are rare. Infant growth should be monitored with the World Health Organization (WHO) Growth Curve Standards to avoid mislabeling infants as underweight or failing to thrive. Hospital routines to encourage and support the initiation and sustaining of exclusive breastfeeding should be based on the American Academy of Pediatrics-endorsed WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." National strategies supported by the US Surgeon General's Call to Action, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and The Joint Commission are involved to facilitate breastfeeding practices in US hospitals and communities. Pediatricians play a critical role in their practices and communities as advocates of breastfeeding and thus should be knowledgeable about the health risks of not breastfeeding, the economic benefits to society of breastfeeding, and the techniques for managing and supporting the breastfeeding dyad. The "Business Case for Breastfeeding" details how mothers can maintain lactation in the workplace and the benefits to employers who facilitate this practice.
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            Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.

            The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.
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              Hypoallergenic Infant Formulas

              (2000)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                avpp
                Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatría
                Arch Venez Puer Ped
                Sociedad Venezolana de Puericultura y Pediatría (Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela )
                0004-0649
                September 2017
                : 80
                : 3
                : 96-101
                Affiliations
                [01] Mérida orgnameUniversidad de los Andes orgdiv1Hospital Universitario de los Andes orgdiv2Departamento de Puericultura y Pediatría Venezuela
                Article
                S0004-06492017000300007 S0004-0649(17)08000300007
                270e6d77-d721-4635-8333-7876596e2f74

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 26 September 2016
                : 29 August 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 6
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículo de Revisión

                vegetable milk,leches de mamíferos,leches artesanales,composition,mammal milk,artisanal milk,composición,leches vegetales

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