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      Dendritic Cells Genetically Modified with an Adenovirus Vector Encoding the cDNA for a Model Antigen Induce Protective and Therapeutic Antitumor Immunity

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          Abstract

          Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role in the initiation of antitumor immune responses. In this study, we show that genetic modifications of a murine epidermis-derived DC line and primary bone marrow–derived DCs to express a model antigen β-galactosidase (βgal) can be achieved through the use of a replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus vector, and that the modified DCs are capable of eliciting antigen-specific, MHC-restricted CTL responses. Importantly, using a murine metastatic lung tumor model with syngeneic colon carcinoma cells expressing βgal, we show that immunization of mice with the genetically modified DC line or bone marrow DCs confers potent protection against a lethal tumor challenge, as well as suppression of preestablished tumors, resulting in a significant survival advantage. We conclude that genetic modification of DCs to express antigens that are also expressed in tumors can lead to antigen-specific, antitumor killer cells, with a concomitant resistance to tumor challenge and a decrease in the size of existing tumors.

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          Most cited references 39

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          MHC-dependent antigen processing and peptide presentation: providing ligands for T lymphocyte activation.

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            Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

            In this pilot study, we investigated the ability of autologous dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with tumor-specific idiotype protein to stimulate host antitumor immunity when infused as a vaccine. Four patients with follicular B-cell lymphoma received a series of three or four infusions of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells followed, in each instance, by subcutaneous injections of soluble antigen two weeks later. All patients developed measurable antitumor cellular immune responses. In addition, clinical responses have been measured with one patient experiencing complete tumor regression, a second patient having partial tumor regression, and a third patient resolving all evidence of disease as detected by a sensitive tumor-specific molecular analysis.
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              Therapy of murine tumors with tumor peptide-pulsed dendritic cells: dependence on T cells, B7 costimulation, and T helper cell 1-associated cytokines

              Antigen presentation by host dendritic cells (DC) is critical for the initiation of adaptive immune responses. We have previously demonstrated in immunogenic murine tumor models that bone marrow (BM)- derived DC pulsed ex vivo with synthetic tumor-associated peptides, naturally expressed by tumor cells, serve as effective antitumor vaccines, protecting animals against an otherwise lethal tumor challenge (Mayordomo, J.I., T. Zorina, W.J. Storkus, C. Celluzzi, L.D. Falo, C.J. Melief, T. Ildstad, W.M. Kast, A.B. DeLeo, and M.T. Lotze. 1995. Nature Med. 1:1297-1302). However, T cell-defined epitopes have not been identified for most human cancers. To explore the utility of this approach in the treatment of tumors expressing as yet uncharacterized epitopes, syngeneic granulocyte/macrophage colony- stimulating factor-stimulated and BM-derived DC, pulsed with unfractionated acid-eluted tumor peptides (Storkus, W.J., H.J. Zeh III, R.D. Salter, and M.T. Lotze. 1993. J. Immunother. 14:94-103) were used to treat mice bearing spontaneous, established tumors. The adoptive transfer of 5 x 10(5) tumor peptide-pulsed DC dramatically suppressed the growth of weakly immunogenic tumors in day 4 to day 8 established MCA205 (H-2b) and TS/A (H-2d) tumor models, when applied in three biweekly intravenous injections. Using the immunogenic C3 (H-2b) tumor model in B6 mice, tumor peptide-pulsed DC therapy resulted in the erradication of established d14 tumors and long-term survival in 100% of treated animals. The DC-driven antitumor immune response was primarily cell mediated since the transfer of spleen cells, but not sera, from immunized mice efficiently protected sublethally irradiated naive mice against a subsequent tumor challenge. Furthermore, depletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells from tumor-bearing mice before therapy totally suppressed the therapeutic efficacy of DC pulsed with tumor- derived peptides. Costimulation of the host cell-mediated antitumor immunity was critical since inoculation of the chimeric fusion protein CTLA4-Ig virtually abrogated the therapeutic effects of peptide-pulsed DC in vivo. The analysis of the cytokine pattern in the draining lymph nodes and spleens of tumor-bearing mice immunized with DC pulsed with tumor-eluted peptides revealed a marked upregulation of interleukin (IL) 4 and interferon (IFN) gamma production, as compared with mice immunized with DC alone or DC pulsed with irrelevant peptides. DC- induced antitumor effects were completely blocked by coadministration of neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against T helper cell 1- associated cytokines (such as IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IFN- gamma), and eventually, but not initially, blocked by anti-mIL-4 mAb. Based on these results, we believe that DC pulsed with acid-eluted peptides derived from autologous tumors represents a novel approach to the treatment of established, weakly immunogenic tumors, and serves as a basis for designing clinical trials in cancer patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                20 October 1997
                : 186
                : 8
                : 1247-1256
                Affiliations
                From the [* ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, []Department of Dermatology, [§ ]Division of Hematology-Oncology, The New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center, New York 10021; and []James Ewing Laboratory of Developmental Hematopoiesis, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Ronald G. Crystal, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center, 520 East 70th Street, ST505, New York, New York 10021. Phone: 212-746-2258; FAX: 212-748-8383; E-mail: rgcryst@ 123456mail.med.cornell.edu

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                2199096
                9334364
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