Cell-derived nanoparticles have been garnering increased attention due to their ability to mimic many of the natural properties displayed by their source cells. This top-down engineering approach can be applied toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies owing to the unique interactions enabled through the retention of complex antigenic information. Herein, we report on the biological functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with a layer of membrane coating derived from cancer cells. The resulting core–shell nanostructures, which carry the full array of cancer cell membrane antigens, offer a robust platform with applicability toward multiple modes of anticancer therapy. We demonstrate that by coupling the particles with an immunological adjuvant, the resulting formulation can be used to promote a tumor-specific immune response for use in vaccine applications. Moreover, we show that by taking advantage of the inherent homotypic binding phenomenon frequently observed among tumor cells the membrane functionalization allows for a unique cancer targeting strategy that can be utilized for drug delivery applications.