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      Cancer Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles for Anticancer Vaccination and Drug Delivery

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          Abstract

          Cell-derived nanoparticles have been garnering increased attention due to their ability to mimic many of the natural properties displayed by their source cells. This top-down engineering approach can be applied toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies owing to the unique interactions enabled through the retention of complex antigenic information. Herein, we report on the biological functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with a layer of membrane coating derived from cancer cells. The resulting core–shell nanostructures, which carry the full array of cancer cell membrane antigens, offer a robust platform with applicability toward multiple modes of anticancer therapy. We demonstrate that by coupling the particles with an immunological adjuvant, the resulting formulation can be used to promote a tumor-specific immune response for use in vaccine applications. Moreover, we show that by taking advantage of the inherent homotypic binding phenomenon frequently observed among tumor cells the membrane functionalization allows for a unique cancer targeting strategy that can be utilized for drug delivery applications.

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          Most cited references38

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          Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

          The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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            A relativistic jetted outburst from a massive black hole fed by a tidally disrupted star

            While gas accretion onto some massive black holes (MBHs) at the centers of galaxies actively powers luminous emission, the vast majority of MBHs are considered dormant. Occasionally, a star passing too near a MBH is torn apart by gravitational forces, leading to a bright panchromatic tidal disruption flare (TDF). While the high-energy transient Swift J164449.3+573451 ("Sw 1644+57") initially displayed none of the theoretically anticipated (nor previously observed) TDF characteristics, we show that the observations (Levan et al. 2011) suggest a sudden accretion event onto a central MBH of mass ~10^6-10^7 solar masses. We find evidence for a mildly relativistic outflow, jet collimation, and a spectrum characterized by synchrotron and inverse Compton processes; this leads to a natural analogy of Sw 1644+57 with a smaller-scale blazar. The phenomenologically novel Sw 1644+57 thus connects the study of TDFs and active galaxies, opening a new vista on disk-jet interactions in BHs and magnetic field generation and transport in accretion systems.
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              Minimal "Self" peptides that inhibit phagocytic clearance and enhance delivery of nanoparticles.

              Foreign particles and cells are cleared from the body by phagocytes that must also recognize and avoid clearance of "self" cells. The membrane protein CD47 is reportedly a "marker of self" in mice that impedes phagocytosis of self by signaling through the phagocyte receptor CD172a. Minimal "Self" peptides were computationally designed from human CD47 and then synthesized and attached to virus-size particles for intravenous injection into mice that express a CD172a variant compatible with hCD47. Self peptides delay macrophage-mediated clearance of nanoparticles, which promotes persistent circulation that enhances dye and drug delivery to tumors. Self-peptide affinity for CD172a is near the optimum measured for human CD172a variants, and Self peptide also potently inhibits nanoparticle uptake mediated by the contractile cytoskeleton. The reductionist approach reveals the importance of human Self peptides and their utility in enhancing drug delivery and imaging.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nano Lett
                Nano Lett
                nl
                nalefd
                Nano Letters
                American Chemical Society
                1530-6984
                1530-6992
                27 March 2015
                27 March 2014
                09 April 2014
                : 14
                : 4
                : 2181-2188
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego , La Jolla, California 92093, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]E-mail: zhang@ 123456ucsd.edu . Tel: 858-246-0999.
                Article
                10.1021/nl500618u
                3985711
                24673373
                27164c2b-2cf6-48cb-ad8a-eb0257b064c0
                Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
                History
                : 16 February 2014
                : 23 March 2014
                Funding
                National Institutes of Health, United States
                Categories
                Letter
                Custom metadata
                nl500618u
                nl-2014-00618u

                Nanotechnology
                nanomedicine,biomimetic nanoparticle,cellular membrane,cancer immunotherapy,targeted drug delivery,homotypic targeting

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