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      The Possible Protective Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 on Endothelium During the Meal and Evidence for an “Endothelial Resistance” to Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in Diabetes

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion. However, GLP-1 also improves endothelial function in diabetes.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          Sixteen type 2 diabetic patients and 12 control subjects received a meal, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and two hyperglycemic clamps, with or without GLP-1. The clamps were repeated in diabetic patients after 2 months of strict glycemic control.

          RESULTS

          During the meal, glycemia, nitrotyrosine, and plasma 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2a) remained unchanged in the control subjects, whereas they increased in diabetic patients. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) decreased in diabetes, whereas GLP-1 increased in both groups. During the OGTT, an increase in glycemia, nitrotyrosine, and 8-iso-PGF2a and a decrease in FMD were observed at 1 h in the control subjects and at 1 and 2 h in the diabetic patients. In the same way, GLP-1 increased in both groups at the same levels of the meal. During the clamps, in both the control subjects and the diabetic patients, a significant increase in nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a and a decrease in FMD were observed, effects that were significantly reduced by GLP-1. After improved glycemic control, hyperglycemia during the clamps was less effective in producing oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and the GLP-1 administration was most effective in reducing these effects.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Our data suggest that during the meal GLP-1 can simultaneously exert an incretin effect on insulin secretion and a protective effect on endothelial function, reasonably controlling oxidative stress generation. The ability of GLP-1 in protecting endothelial function seems to depend on the level of glycemia, a phenomenon already described for insulin secretion.

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          Most cited references17

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          Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance.

          Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely raised to 125 mg/dl above basal levels by a priming infusion of glucose. The desired hyperglycemic plateau is subsequently maintained by adjustment of a variable glucose infusion, based on the negative feedback principle. Because the plasma glucose concentration is held constant, the glucose infusion rate is an index of glucose metabolism. Under these conditions of constant hyperglycemia, the plasma insulin response is biphasic with an early burst of insulin release during the first 6 min followed by a gradually progressive increase in plasma insulin concentration. Euglycemic insulin clamp technique. The plasma insulin concentration is acutely raised and maintained at approximately 100 muU/ml by a prime-continuous infusion of insulin. The plasma glucose concentration is held constant at basal levels by a variable glucose infusion using the negative feedback principle. Under these steady-state conditions of euglycemia, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by all the tissues in the body and is therefore a measure of tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin.
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            Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

            In type-2 diabetes, the overall incretin effect is reduced. The present investigation was designed to compare insulinotropic actions of exogenous incretin hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP] and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] [7-36 amide]) in nine type-2 diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose 7.8 mmol/liter; hemoglobin A1c 6.3 +/- 0.6%) and in nine age- and weight-matched normal subjects. Synthetic human GIP (0.8 and 2.4 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), GLP-1 [7-36 amide] (0.4 and 1.2 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), and placebo were administered under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (8.75 mmol/liter) in separate experiments. Plasma GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were comparable to those after oral glucose with the low, and clearly supraphysiological with the high infusion rates. Both GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] dose-dependently augmented insulin secretion (insulin, C-peptide) in both groups (P < 0.05). With GIP, the maximum effect in type-2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (by 54%; P < 0.05) than in normal subjects. With GLP-1 [7-36 amide] type-2 diabetic patients reached 71% of the increments in C-peptide of normal subjects (difference not significant). Glucagon was lowered during hyperglycemic clamps in normal subjects, but not in type-2 diabetic patients, and further by GLP-1 [7-36 amide] in both groups (P < 0.05), but not by GIP. In conclusion, in mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity. It also lowers glucagon concentrations.
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              Postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetes complications: is it time to treat?

              A Ceriello (2004)
              Increasing evidence suggests that the postprandial state is a contributing factor to the development of atherosclerosis. In diabetes, the postprandial phase is characterized by a rapid and large increase in blood glucose levels, and the possibility that the postprandial "hyperglycemic spikes" may be relevant to the onset of cardiovascular complications has recently received much attention. Epidemiological studies and preliminary intervention studies have shown that postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most of the cardiovascular risk factors are modified in the postprandial phase in diabetic subjects and directly affected by an acute increase of glycemia. The mechanisms through which acute hyperglycemia exerts its effects may be identified in the production of free radicals. This alarmingly suggestive body of evidence for a harmful effect of postprandial hyperglycemia on diabetes complications has been sufficient to influence guidelines from key professional scientific societies. Correcting the postprandial hyperglycemia may form part of the strategy for the prevention and management of CVDs in diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                March 2011
                17 February 2011
                : 34
                : 3
                : 697-702
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Insititut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain
                [2] 2Division of Metabolic Diseases, Center of Excellence for Cardiovascular Diseases, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
                [3] 3Metabolic and Nutrition Research Centre on Diabetes, INRCA, Ancona, Italy
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Antonio Ceriello, aceriell@ 123456clinic.ub.es .
                Article
                1949
                10.2337/dc10-1949
                3041210
                21273492
                272e936c-f43d-4bd1-a487-e3c76635257f
                © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

                History
                : 14 October 2010
                : 21 December 2010
                Categories
                Original Research
                Pathophysiology/Complications

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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