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      The Effectiveness of a Dyadic Pain Management Program for Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Chronic Pain: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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          Abstract

          Background: Chronic pain is a major health problem among older adults and their informal caregivers, which has negative effects on their physical and psychological status. The dyadic pain management program (DPMP) is provided to community-dwelling older adults and informal caregivers to help the dyads reduce pain symptoms, improve the quality of life, develop good exercise habits, as well as cope and break the vicious circle of pain. Methods: A pilot randomized controlled trial was designed and all the dyads were randomly divided into two groups: the DPMP group and control group. Dyads in the DPMP group participated in an 8-week DPMP (4-week face-to-face program and 4-week home-based program), whereas dyads in the control group received one page of simple pain-related information. Results: In total, 64 dyads participated in this study. For baseline comparisons, no significant differences were found between the two groups. After the interventions, the pain score was significantly reduced from 4.25 to 2.57 in the experimental group, respectively. In the repeated measures ANOVA, the differences in pain score (F = 107.787, p < 0.001, d = 0.777) was statistically significant for the group-by-time interaction. After the interventions, the experimental group participants demonstrated significantly higher pain self-efficacy compared with the control group (F = 80.535, p < 0.001, d = 0.722). Furthermore, the elderly increased exercise time significantly (F = 111.212, p < 0.001, d = 0.782) and reported developing good exercise habits. Conclusions: These results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a DPMP for relieving the symptoms of chronic pain among the elderly.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Subjective burden of husbands and wives as caregivers: a longitudinal study.

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            A review of chronic pain impact on patients, their social environment and the health care system

            Chronic pain (CP) seriously affects the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, but few studies on CP have considered its effects on the patient’s social and family environment. In this work, through a review of the literature, we assessed several aspects of how CP influences the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, as well as its repercussions in the workplace, and on the family and social environment. Finally, the consequences of pain on the health care system are discussed. On the basis of the results, we concluded that in addition to the serious consequences on the patient’s life, CP has a severe detrimental effect on their social and family environment, as well as on health care services. Thus, we want to emphasize on the need to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to treatment so as to obtain more comprehensive improvements for patients in familial and social contexts. Accordingly, it would be beneficial to promote more social- and family-oriented research initiatives.
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              Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for older adults: a review.

              This review evaluates the effectiveness of physical activity interventions among older adults. Computerized searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. Studies were included if: (1) the study population consisted of older adults (average sample population age of > or =50 years and minimum age of 40 years); (2) the intervention consisted of an exercise program or was aimed at promoting physical activity; and (3) reported on participation (i.e., adherence/compliance) or changes in level of physical activity (e.g., pre-post test measures and group comparisons). The 38 studies included 57 physical activity interventions. Three types of interventions were identified: home-based, group-based, and educational. In the short-term, both home-based interventions and group-based interventions achieved high rates of participation (means of 90% and 84%, respectively). Participation declined the longer the duration of the intervention. Participation in education interventions varied widely (range of 35% to 96%). Both group-based interventions and education interventions were effective in increasing physical activity levels in the short-term. Information on long-term effectiveness was either absent or showed no difference of physical activity level between the study groups. Home-based, group-based, and educational physical activity interventions can result in increased physical activity, but changes are small and short-lived. Participation rates of home-based and group-based interventions were comparable, and both seemed to be unrelated to type or frequency of physical activity. The beneficial effect of behavioral reinforcement strategies was not evident. Comparative studies evaluating the effectiveness of diverse interventions are needed to identify the interventions most likely to succeed in the initiation and maintenance of physical activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                09 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 17
                : 14
                Affiliations
                School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong 999007, China; 18092892g@ 123456connect.polyu.hk (Z.L.); sk-angel.tang@ 123456polyu.edu.hk (A.T.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mimi.tse@ 123456polyu.edu.hk ; Tel.: +85-2-2766-6541
                Article
                ijerph-17-04966
                10.3390/ijerph17144966
                7400324
                32660159
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                informal caregiver, dyadic pain management, chronic pain, older adult

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