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      Climate change effects on biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and natural resource management in the United States

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          Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for contemporary adaptation in new environments

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            Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions.

            Humans continue to transform the global nitrogen cycle at a record pace, reflecting an increased combustion of fossil fuels, growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, and pervasive inefficiencies in its use. Much anthropogenic nitrogen is lost to air, water, and land to cause a cascade of environmental and human health problems. Simultaneously, food production in some parts of the world is nitrogen-deficient, highlighting inequities in the distribution of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Optimizing the need for a key human resource while minimizing its negative consequences requires an integrated interdisciplinary approach and the development of strategies to decrease nitrogen-containing waste.
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              Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming.

              The distributions of many terrestrial organisms are currently shifting in latitude or elevation in response to changing climate. Using a meta-analysis, we estimated that the distributions of species have recently shifted to higher elevations at a median rate of 11.0 meters per decade, and to higher latitudes at a median rate of 16.9 kilometers per decade. These rates are approximately two and three times faster than previously reported. The distances moved by species are greatest in studies showing the highest levels of warming, with average latitudinal shifts being generally sufficient to track temperature changes. However, individual species vary greatly in their rates of change, suggesting that the range shift of each species depends on multiple internal species traits and external drivers of change. Rapid average shifts derive from a wide diversity of responses by individual species.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Science of The Total Environment
                Science of The Total Environment
                Elsevier BV
                00489697
                September 2020
                September 2020
                : 733
                : 137782
                Article
                10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137782
                32209235
                2748d7a1-4bcb-4919-b831-b7c2fbc2a96b
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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