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      Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats Translated title: Comparaison de différentes stratégies de supplémentation en maïs pour améliorer la résilience et la résistance des chèvres au pâturage contre les infections par nématodes gastro-intestinaux

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          The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids ( n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group ( P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest.

          Translated abstract

          L'effet de la supplémentation en grains de maïs sur la résilience et la résistance de chevreaux de race Criollo au pâturage contre les nématodes gastro-intestinaux a été évalué. Des chevreaux âgés de cinq mois ( n = 42), élevés sans vers parasites, ont été partagés en cinq groupes : infesté + non supplémenté (I-NS ; n = 10), infesté + supplément de maïs à 108 g/j (I-S108 ; n = 8), supplément de maïs à 1 % du poids vif (PV) (I-S1 % ; n = 8), supplément de maïs à 1.5 % PV (I-S1.5 ; n = 8) ou infesté + (supplément de maïs 1.5 % PV) + moxidectine (0.2 mg/kg PV sous-cutané tous les 28 jours) (T-S1.5 % ; n = 8). Les chevreaux pâturaient chaque jour (7 h) dans une forêt tropicale pendant 112 jours en saison des pluies. Les chevreaux ont été pesés chaque semaine pour ajuster l'alimentation complémentaire. L’hématocrite, l'hémoglobine et les œufs par gramme de fèces ont été déterminés par quinzaine. Au jour 112, cinq chevreaux par groupe ont été abattus afin de déterminer la charge parasitaire. Les chevreaux du groupe I-S1.5 % ont montré des changements de poids vif, hématocrite et hémoglobine similaires aux chevreaux sans nématodes gastro-intestinaux (T-S1.5 %), ainsi que des valeurs d’œufs par gramme de selles et une charge en Trichostrongylus colubriformis inférieurs à celles du groupe I-NS ( P > 0.05). Ainsi, parmi les niveaux de suppléments testés, la supplémentation en maïs à 1.5 % du poids vif des chevreaux était la meilleure stratégie pour améliorer leur résilience et la résistance contre les infections naturelles par nématodes gastro-intestinaux dans les conditions de pâture de la forêt tropicale.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Influence of host nutrition on the development and consequences of nematode parasitism in ruminants.

          Control of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants is based largely on use of anthelmintics combined, where practical, with pasture management. The increasing prevalence of resistance to anthelmintics has led to the search for alternative sustainable control strategies. Here, we consider how nutrition, as a short-term alternative, can influence the host--parasite relationship in ruminants, using gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep as the model system. Nutrition can affect the ability of the host to cope with the consequences of parasitism and to contain and eventually to overcome parasitism. It can also affect the parasite population through the intake of antiparasitic compounds.
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            Nutrition-parasite interaction.

            The interactions between host nutrition and parasitism in ruminants are viewed within a framework that accounts for the allocation of scarce nutrient resources, such as energy and protein, between the various competing body functions of the host. These include functions that are the direct result of parasitism. Since it is proposed that the host gives priority to the reversal of the pathophysiological consequences of parasitism over other body functions, it is to be expected that improved nutrition will always lead to improved resilience. On the other hand, it is proposed that the function of growth, pregnancy and lactation are prioritised over the expression of immunity. Thus, improved nutrition may affect the degree of expression of immunity during these phases. The framework is useful at highlighting areas of future research on host/parasite/nutrition interactions. Its suggestions can account for the observations of the periparturient relaxation of immunity in reproducing females, as well as the reduction in worm burden in small ruminants supplemented with additional protein. Although developed for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants, the concepts of the framework should be applicable to the interactions of nutrition in other parasitic diseases.
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              Effect of a tropical tannin-rich plant Lysiloma latisiliquum on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

              Bioactive plants with anthelmintic (AH) properties represent a promising alternative solution to chemical treatments. The AH effect of several Mexican tannin-rich (TR) plants has been screened in vitro. The in vivo AH effect of one TR legume, Lysiloma latisiliquum (Tzalam) on nematode larval establishment was confirmed. The present trial aimed at evaluating the direct and indirect effects of L. latisiliquum fodder consumption on adult Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-two parasite-naïve hair sheep lambs were allocated to an infected group (I) (400H. contortus L(3)/kg BW on D0) and a non-infected group (NI). From D0 to D28 post infection (PI), all the lambs were fed a complete diet. On D28, the two groups were sub-divided into four groups. Two control (C) groups maintained on the original basal diet (CI: 6 infected lambs and CNI: 5 non-infected lambs). The two treatment groups (T) received L. latisiliquum fodder ad libitum up to D36 when lambs were humanely slaughtered (TI: 6 infected lambs and TNI: 5 non-infected lambs). From D28 to D36 PI, individual fodder consumption and nematode egg excretion were measured daily. At necropsy, abomasal contents were recovered to obtain worm burdens and measure the female worm length and fecundity. Histological samples were taken from the respective abomasums and small intestines to count mucosal inflammatory cells. An increased consumption of TR fodder was observed in the TI vs. the TNI group (P<0.01). Before L. latisiliquum distribution, faecal egg excretion was similar in TI and CI groups. From D29 PI the TI group showed lower faecal egg counts compared to CI group (P<0.02). Although no differences in worm burdens were observed, worms of the TI group were smaller and, according to their size, contained fewer eggs in utero than worms from the CI group (P<0.05). Only minor differences in mucosal inflammatory cells were observed between groups, indicating that the indirect effect was not evident. Thus, a short-term consumption of L. latisiliquum can modulate directly the biology of adult H. contortus affecting the worm size and female fecundity while the worm burdens were not affected. Infected animals ate more L. latisiliquum fodder than non-infected animals.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                12 June 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                [1 ] FMVZ, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Km 15.5 Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil Mérida Yucatán 97315 Mexico
                [2 ] FMVZ, Universidad Michoacana de san Nicolás de Hidalgo, Unidad Acueducto, Av. Acueducto Esq. Tzintzuntzan Col. Matamoros Morelia Michoacán 58130 Mexico
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: tacosta@ 123456uady.mx
                parasite140099 10.1051/parasite/2015019
                © L. Gárate-Gallardo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Novel Approaches to the Control of Parasites in Goats and Sheep. Invited editors: Hervé Hoste, Smaragda Sotiraki and Michel Alvinerie
                Research Article


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