Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) can assimilate methane and govern the greenhouse effect of deep-sea cold seeps. In this study, a total of 13 ANME draft genomes representing five ANME types (ANME-1a, ANME-1b, ANME-2a, ANME-2b and ANME-2c), in size between 0.8 and 1.8 Mbp, were obtained from the Jiaolong cold seep in the South China Sea. The small metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) contained all the essential pathways for methane oxidization and carbon dioxide fixation. All genes related to nitrate and sulfate reduction were absent from the MAGs, indicating their syntrophic dependence on partner organisms. Aside from acetate secretion and sugar storage, propanoate synthesis pathway, as an alternative novel carbon flow, was identified in all the MAGs and transcriptionally active. Regarding type-specific features of the MAGs, the genes encoding archaellum and bacteria-derived chemotaxis were specific to ANME-2, perhaps for fitness under fluctuation of methane and sulfate concentration flux. Our genomic and transcriptomic results strongly suggested that ANME could carry out simple carbon metabolism from C1 assimilation to C3 biosynthesis in the SCS cold seep, which casts light on a novel approach for synthetic biology.