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      A Proposed Grading System to Standardize the Description of Renal Papillary Appearance at the Time of Endoscopy in Patients with Nephrolithiasis

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          Abstract

          The appearance of the renal papillae in patients with nephrolithiasis can be quite variable and can range from entirely healthy to markedly diseased. The implications of such findings remain unknown. One potential reason is the lack of a standardized system to describe such features. We propose a novel grading scale to describe papillary appearance at the time of renal endoscopy.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Contemporary surgical trends in the management of upper tract calculi.

          Upper tract nephrolithiasis is a common surgical condition that is treated with multiple surgical techniques, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We analyzed case logs submitted to the ABU by candidates for initial certification and recertification to help elucidate the trends in management of upper tract urinary calculi.
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            Three pathways for human kidney stone formation.

            No single theory of pathogenesis can properly account for human kidney stones, they are too various and their formation is too complex for simple understanding. Using human tissue biopsies, intraoperative imaging and such physiology data from ten different stone forming groups, we have identified at least three pathways that lead to stones. The first pathway is overgrowth on interstitial apatite plaque as seen in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, as well as stone formers with primary hyperparathyroidism, ileostomy, and small bowel resection, and in brushite stone formers. In the second pathway, there are crystal deposits in renal tubules that were seen in all stone forming groups except the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The third pathway is free solution crystallization. Clear examples of this pathway are those patient groups with cystinuria or hyperoxaluria associated with bypass surgery for obesity. Although the final products may be very similar, the ways of creation are so different that in attempting to create animal and cell models of the processes one needs to be careful that the details of the human condition are included.
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              Crystal-associated nephropathy in patients with brushite nephrolithiasis.

              We have biopsied the renal cortex and papillae of patients who form brushite renal stones asking if this unusual stone type is associated with specific tissue changes. We contrasted these with biopsies of 15 calcium oxalate stone formers, three stone formers with intestinal bypass, and four normal subjects. We studied all ten brushite stone formers treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) during the past 3 years using digital video imaging of renal papillae, and obtained cortical and papillary biopsies. Biopsies were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, microinfrared spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. Apatite crystals plugged scattered terminal collecting ducts whose cells were injured or dead, and surrounding interstitium inflamed and fibrotic. White papillary deposits of interstitial apatite particles, so called Randall's plaque, were also present. Glomerular changes and cortical tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were moderate to severe. Brushite stone formers combine the interstitial plaque of calcium oxalate stone formers with the collecting duct apatite plugs found in stone formers with intestinal bypass. Collecting duct injury and interstitial fibrosis are severe. Prominent cortical fibrosis, tubule atrophy, and glomerular pathology seem secondary to the collecting duct plugging. We believe crystallization obstructs and destroys terminal collecting duct segments thereby damaging nephrons, perhaps via intranephronal obstruction, and producing a hitherto unrecognized renal disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Endourology
                Journal of Endourology
                Mary Ann Liebert Inc
                0892-7790
                1557-900X
                January 2016
                January 2016
                : 30
                : 1
                : 122-127
                Article
                10.1089/end.2015.0298
                4744462
                26414908
                © 2016

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