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      Overspill of Catheter Locking Solution: Safety and Efficacy Aspects :

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      ASAIO Journal

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Vascular access use in Europe and the United States: results from the DOPPS.

          A direct broad-based comparison of vascular access use and survival in Europe (EUR) and the United States (US) has not been performed previously. Case series reports suggest that vascular access practices differ substantially in the US and EUR. We report on a representative study (DOPPS) which has used the same data collection protocol for> 6400 hemodialysis (HD) patients to compare vascular access use at 145 US dialysis units and 101 units in five EUR countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). Logistic analysis evaluated factors associated with native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) versus graft use or permanent access versus catheter use for prevalent and incident HD patients. Times to failure for AVF and graft were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. AVF was used by 80% of EUR and 24% of US prevalent patients, and was significantly associated with younger age, male gender, lower body mass index, non-diabetic status, lack of peripheral vascular disease, and no angina. After adjusting for these factors, AVF versus graft use was still much higher in EUR than US (AOR=21, P 30 days prior to ESRD compared with 74% in the US (P < 0.0001); pre-ESRD care was associated with increased odds of AVF versus graft use (AOR=1.9, P=0.01). New HD patients had a 1.8-fold greater odds (P=0.002) of starting HD with a permanent access if a facility's typical time from referral to access placement was < or =2 weeks. AVF use when compared to grafts was substantially lower (AOR=0.61, P=0.04) when surgery trainees assisted or performed access placements. When used as a patient's first access, AVF survival was superior to grafts regarding time to first failure (RR=0.53, P=0.0002), and AVF survival was longer in EUR compared with the US (RR=0.49, P=0.0005). AVF and grafts each displayed better survival if used when initiating HD compared with being used after patients began dialysis with a catheter. Large differences in vascular access use exist between EUR and the US, even after adjustment for patient characteristics. The results strongly suggest that a facility's preferences and approaches to vascular access practice are major determinants of vascular access use.
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            Risk of heparin lock-related bleeding when using indwelling venous catheter in haemodialysis.

            The indwelling venous catheter such as Dual-Cath or Twin-Cath is widely used in haemodialysis. Although the manufacturer recommends filling the catheter lumen with heparin after the dialysis session to prevent clotting, little is known about the systemic effects of such a procedure. Twenty haemodialysis patients with Dual-Cath were studied. Dialysis anticoagulation was achieved by injecting a bolus of dalteparin. The patient/control ratio of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was determined at the end of the session immediately before and 10 min after locking with 2 ml of undiluted heparin (10,000 U/catheter). We also determined the catheter volume for each patient and measured aPTT immediately before and 10 min after heparin locking with this patient-specific volume. Catheter patency was followed over a 2-week period. The aPTT values determined at the end of two consecutive dialysis sessions were nearly normal, respectively 1.29 (+/-0.17) and 1.33 (+/-0.22), whereas all patients had uncoagulable blood (aPTT >3.75) 10 min after locking with 2 ml of heparin. When catheter volumes were individually calculated, they were found to be substantially lower than 2.0 ml (1.21+/-0.12 for the arterial branch and 1.27+/-0.13 for the venous branch). aPTT was only 2.42+/-0.73 10 min after locking with the estimated volumes except in one patient (aPTT >3.75). No catheter clotting was observed despite these smaller locking volumes. A risk of inducing serious bleeding does indeed exist with Dual-Cath heparin locking, especially in postoperative patients. This risk can be reduced by measuring catheter length at the time of placement in order to ensure an appropriate lock volume. Sodium citrate, polygeline, or urokinase are possible alternatives to heparin.
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              Concentrated Sodium Citrate (23%) for Catheter Lock

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ASAIO Journal
                ASAIO Journal
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1058-2916
                2003
                November 2003
                : 49
                : 6
                : 713-715
                Article
                10.1097/01.MAT.0000094040.54794.2D
                © 2003

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