Neurons that synthesize and secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represent the neural control point for fertility modulation in vertebrates. As such GnRH neurons are ideally situated to integrate stress responses on reproduction. By isolating individual GnRH neurons from acute brain slices of adult female GnRH-EGFP transgenic mice and using microarray analyses, we have identified a range of transcripts encoding receptors known to be involved in stress responses in GnRH neurons. Prominent among these were receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin, interleukins, prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor alpha and other inflammatory mediators. We selected 4 of these targets [interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1Racc), prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> receptor subtype EP2 (PGER2), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1), and arginine-vasopressin receptor type 1b (AVP-R1b)] for validation using single-cell RT-PCR from individual GnRH neurons. In total, 54% of GnRH neurons (n = 26) were found to express at least 1 of these transcripts. The IL-1Racc, PGER2 and CRH-R1 mRNAs were each detected in approximately 25% of the GnRH neurons tested, but no evidence was found for AVP-R1b transcripts. Overlap was found between the expression of CRH-R1 and PGER2, and IL-1Racc and PGER2 in individual GnRH neurons. Dual immunofluorescence experiments confirmed the expression of CRH-R1/2 in a subpopulation (∼30%) of GnRH neurons. These observations indicate that a variety of different stressors and stress pathways have the capacity to have an impact directly upon a subpopulation of GnRH neurons to influence the reproductive axis.