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      Variability and fluctuating asymmetry of mid tibial spurs in Eucremastus Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae)

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The presence of one or two spurs on the mid tibia has been widely used as a diagnostic character in many taxa, but it has been discovered to be a highly variable character in the Cremastinae genus Eucremastus. Variation in the number of mid tibial spurs and occurrence of asymmetry in this genus was studied. The anomalies observed in this character are classified into three categories. Other non-cremastine genera traditionally characterized by having a single mid tibial spur were studied, but no anomalies were found. The taxonomic implications of this variation are discussed.

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          Fluctuating Asymmetry: Measurement, Analysis, Patterns

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            A Study of Fluctuating Asymmetry

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              Fluctuating asymmetry: an epigenetic measure of stress.

              (1) Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a useful trait for monitoring stress in the laboratory and in natural environments. (2) Both genomic and environmental changes can increase FA which represents a deterioration in developmental homeostasis apparent in adult morphology. Genetic perturbations include intense directional selection and certain specific genes. Environmental perturbations include temperature extremes in particular, protein deprivation, audiogenic stress, and exposure to pollutants. (3) There is a negative association between FA and heterozygosity in a range of taxa especially fish, a result consistent with FA being a measure of fitness. (4) Scattered reports on non-experimental populations are consistent with experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. FA tends to increase as habitats become ecologically marginal; this includes exposure to environmental toxicants. (5) In our own species, FA of an increasing range of traits has been related to both environmental and genomic stress. (6) Domestication increases FA of the strength of homologous long bones of vertebrate species due to a relaxation of natural selection. (7) FA levels are paralleled by the incidence of skeletal abnormalities in stressful environments. (8) Increased FA is a reflection of poorer developmental homeostasis at the molecular, chromosomal and epigenetic levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                September 07 2015
                September 07 2015
                : 45
                : 55-63
                Article
                10.3897/JHR.45.8612
                © 2015

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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