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      Complementary Value of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Assessment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis

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          Abstract

          <div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S1"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d3545602e214">Background—</h5> <p id="P2">Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) detect different pathological attributes of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), the complementary value of these tests has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the value of combining CMR and PET in assessing the likelihood of CS and guiding patient management. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S2"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d3545602e219">Methods and Results—</h5> <p id="P3">In this retrospective study, we included 107 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of CS by both CMR and PET. Two experienced readers blinded to all clinical data reviewed CMR and PET images and categorized the likelihood of CS as no (&lt;10%), possible (10%–50%), probable (50%–90%), or highly probable(&gt;90%) based on predefined criteria. Patient management after imaging was assessed for all patients and across categories of increasing CS likelihood. A final clinical diagnosis for each patient was assigned based on a subsequent review of all available imaging, clinical, and pathological data. Among 107 patients (age, 55±11 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 43±16%), 91 (85%) had late gadolinium enhancement, whereas 82 (76%) had abnormal F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET, suggesting active inflammation. Among the 91 patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement, 60 (66%) had abnormal F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. When PET data were added to CMR, 48 (45%) patients were reclassified as having a higher or lower likelihood of CS, most of them (80%) being correctly reclassified when compared with the final diagnosis. Changes in immunosuppressive therapies were significantly more likely among patients with highly probable CS. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S3"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d3545602e224">Conclusions—</h5> <p id="P4">Among patients with suspected CS, combining CMR and PET provides complementary value for estimating the likelihood of CS and guiding patient management. </p> </div>

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          Most cited references 23

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          Prognostic determinants of long-term survival in Japanese patients with cardiac sarcoidosis treated with prednisone.

          Cardiac involvement is an important prognostic factor in sarcoidosis, but reliable indicators of mortality risk in cardiac sarcoidosis are unstudied in a large number of patients. To determine the significant predictors of mortality and to assess the efficacy of corticosteroids, we analyzed clinical findings, treatment, and prognosis in 95 Japanese patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. Twenty of these 95 patients had cardiac sarcoidosis proven by autopsy; none of these patients had received corticosteroids. We assessed 12 clinical variables as possible predictors of mortality by Cox proportional hazards model in 75 steroid-treated patients. During the mean follow-up of 68 months, 29 patients (73%) died of congestive heart failure and 11 (27%) experienced sudden death. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed 5-year survival rates of 75% in the steroid-treated patients and of 89% in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction > or = 50%, whereas there was only 10% 5-year survival rate in autopsy subjects. There was no significant difference in survival curves of patients treated with a high initial dose (> 30 mg) and a low initial dose (> or = 30 mg) of prednisone. Multivariate analysis identified New York Heart Association functional class (hazard ratio 7.72 per class I increase, p = 0.0008), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (hazard ratio 2.60/10 mm increase, p = 0.02), and sustained ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio 7.20, p = 0.03) as independent predictors of mortality. In conclusion, the severity of heart failure was one of the most significant independent predictors of mortality for cardiac sarcoidosis. Starting corticosteroids before the occurrence of systolic dysfunction resulted in an excellent clinical outcome. A high initial dose of prednisone may not be essential for treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis.
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            CMR imaging predicts death and other adverse events in suspected cardiac sarcoidosis.

            This study aimed to demonstrate that the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a predictor of death and other adverse events in patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. Cardiac sarcoidosis is the most important cause of patient mortality in systemic sarcoidosis, yielding a 5-year mortality rate between 25% and 66% despite immunosuppressive treatment. Other groups have shown that LGE may hold promise in predicting future adverse events in this patient group. We included 155 consecutive patients with systemic sarcoidosis who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for workup of suspected cardiac sarcoid involvement. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years. Primary endpoints were death, aborted sudden cardiac death, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) discharge. Secondary endpoints were ventricular tachycardia (VT) and nonsustained VT. LGE was present in 39 patients (25.5%). The presence of LGE yields a Cox hazard ratio (HR) of 31.6 for death, aborted sudden cardiac death, or appropriate ICD discharge, and of 33.9 for any event. This is superior to functional or clinical parameters such as left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), LV end-diastolic volume, or presentation as heart failure, yielding HRs between 0.99 (per % increase LVEF) and 1.004 (presentation as heart failure), and between 0.94 and 1.2 for potentially lethal or other adverse events, respectively. Except for 1 patient dying from pulmonary infection, no patient without LGE died or experienced any event during follow-up, even if the LV was enlarged and the LVEF severely impaired. Among our population of sarcoid patients with nonspecific symptoms, the presence of myocardial scar indicated by LGE was the best independent predictor of potentially lethal events, as well as other adverse events, yielding a Cox HR of 31.6 and of 33.9, respectively. These data support the necessity for future large, longitudinal follow-up studies to definitely establish LGE as an independent predictor of cardiac death in sarcoidosis, as well as to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of additional parameters. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Cardiac positron emission tomography enhances prognostic assessments of patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis.

              This study sought to relate imaging findings on positron emission tomography (PET) to adverse cardiac events in patients referred for evaluation of known or suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. Although cardiac PET is commonly used to evaluate patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis, the relationship between PET findings and clinical outcomes has not been reported. We studied 118 consecutive patients with no history of coronary artery disease, who were referred for PET, using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess for inflammation and rubidium-82 to evaluate for perfusion defects (PD), following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet to suppress normal myocardial glucose uptake. Blind readings of PET data categorized cardiac findings as normal, positive PD or FDG, positive PD and FDG. Images were also used to identify whether findings of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis were present. Adverse events (AE)-death or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT)-were ascertained by electronic medical records, defibrillator interrogation, patient questionnaires, and telephone interviews. Among the 118 patients (age 52 ± 11 years; 57% males; mean ejection fraction: 47 ± 16%), 47 (40%) had normal and 71 (60%) had abnormal cardiac PET findings. Over a median follow-up of 1.5 years, there were 31 (26%) adverse events (27 VT and 8 deaths). Cardiac PET findings were predictive of AE, and the presence of both a PD and abnormal FDG (29% of patients) was associated with hazard ratio of 3.9 (p < 0.01) and remained significant after adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical criteria. Extra-cardiac FDG uptake (26% of patients) was not associated with AE. The presence of focal PD and FDG uptake on cardiac PET identifies patients at higher risk of death or VT. These findings offer prognostic value beyond Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare clinical criteria, the presence of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis and LVEF. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging
                Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1941-9651
                1942-0080
                January 2018
                January 2018
                : 11
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Program (T.V., M.V.-C., P.E.B., E.M., E.H., V.R.T., M.S., H.S., R.Y.K., S.D., M.F.D.C., R.B.), Department of Radiology (T.V., M.V.-C., P.E.B., E.M., E.H., V.R.T., M.S., H.S., R.Y.K., S.D., M.F.D.C., R.B.), Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology (M.A., S.D., M.F.D.C., R.B.), Division of Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology (R.M.), and Cardiovascular Division (H.S., R.Y.K., G.S....
                Article
                10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.117.007030
                6381829
                29335272
                © 2018

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