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      Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Simple Need or a Must?

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          Dietary salt restriction is one of the most important non pharmacological intervention in the management of hypertension and cardiovascular complications. In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients, observational and recent interventional studies investigating the relationship between sodium intake and renal outcomes suggest that low salt diet is warranted in this high risk category of patients. Moreover reducing and maintaining a low salt intake in these patients plays a fundamental role for maximizing the beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors on CKD progression. On the other hand, in hypertensive patients there is experimental evidence indicating that a very low sodium diet (<50 mEq/day) generates a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by an increase in Procalcitonin and TNF-alpha and a reduction in an anti-inflammatory cytokine like Adiponectin. In this brief review the main mechanisms whereby salt intake may determine kidney damage and studies showing that salt restriction may have a beneficial effect in CKD patients will be discussed.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Effects of dietary sodium and hydrochlorothiazide on the antiproteinuric efficacy of losartan.

          There is large interindividual variability in the antiproteinuric response to blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). A low-sodium diet or addition of diuretics enhances the effects of RAAS blockade on proteinuria and BP, but the efficacy of the combination of these interventions is unknown. Therefore, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the separate and combined effects of a low-sodium diet and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) on proteinuria and BP was performed. In 34 proteinuric patients without diabetes, mean baseline proteinuria was 3.8 g/d, and this was reduced by 22% by a low-sodium diet alone. Losartan monotherapy reduced proteinuria by 30%, and the addition of a low-sodium diet led to a total reduction by 55% and the addition of HCT to 56%. The combined addition of HCT and a low-sodium diet reduced proteinuria by 70% from baseline (all P < 0.05). Reductions in mean arterial pressure showed a similar pattern (all P < 0.05). In addition, individuals who did not demonstrate an antiproteinuric response to losartan monotherapy did respond when a low-sodium diet or a diuretic was added. In conclusion, a low-sodium diet and HCT are equally efficacious in reducing proteinuria and BP when added to a regimen containing losartan and especially seem to benefit individuals who are resistant to RAAS blockade. Combining these interventions in sodium status is an effective method to maximize the antiproteinuric efficacy of RAAS blockade.
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            Sodium intake, ACE inhibition, and progression to ESRD.

            High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy trials to evaluate the association of sodium intake with proteinuria and progression to ESRD among 500 CKD patients without diabetes who were treated with ramipril (5 mg/d) and monitored with serial 24-hour urinary sodium and creatinine measurements. Urinary sodium/creatinine excretion defined low ( 4.25 years, 92 individuals (18.4%) developed ESRD. Among those with low, medium, and high sodium intakes, the incidence of ESRD was 6.1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.8-9.7), 7.9 (95% CI, 6.1-10.2), and 18.2 (95% CI, 11.3-29.3) per 100 patient-years, respectively (P 14 g daily) seems to blunt the antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibitor therapy and increase the risk for ESRD, independent of BP control.
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              A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD.

              There is a paucity of quality evidence regarding the effects of sodium restriction in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with pre-end stage CKD, where controlling modifiable risk factors may be especially important for delaying CKD progression and cardiovascular events. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial assessing the effects of high versus low sodium intake on ambulatory BP, 24-hour protein and albumin excretion, fluid status (body composition monitor), renin and aldosterone levels, and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) in 20 adult patients with hypertensive stage 3-4 CKD as phase 1 of the LowSALT CKD study. Overall, salt restriction resulted in statistically significant and clinically important reductions in BP (mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP, 10/4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 5 to 15 /1 to 6 mm Hg), extracellular fluid volume, albuminuria, and proteinuria in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. The magnitude of change was more pronounced than the magnitude reported in patients without CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD are particularly salt sensitive. Although studies with longer intervention times and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these benefits, this study indicates that sodium restriction should be emphasized in the management of patients with CKD as a means to reduce cardiovascular risk and risk for CKD progression.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2014
                29 July 2014
                : 39
                : 2-3
                : 124-128
                Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit &amp; CNR-IFC/IBIM Reggio Calabria, Italy
                355786 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:124-128
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (, applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 5

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Chronic kidney disease, Salt


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