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      Heliocephala variabilis and Pseudopenidiella vietnamensis: Two New Hyphomycetous Species in the Microthyriaceae (Dothideomycetes) from Vietnam

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          Abstract

          In a survey of microfungi from plant debris collected in Vietnam, two new hyphomycetous species were found, which belong to the genera Heliocephala and Pseudopenidiella and the family Microthyriaceae ( Microthyriales, Dothideomycetes). Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA barcodes allowed assessing the phylogenetic relationships of the new species with other species of the respective genera. Heliocephala variabilis sp. nov. was closely related to Heliocephala elegans, Heliocephala gracilis, and Heliocephala zimbabweensis, from which it was morphologically distinguished by its smaller conidiophores and non-rostrate conidia of up to four septa on the natural substratum. Pseudopenidiella vietnamensis sp. nov. was related to Pseudopenidiella piceae and Pseudopenidiella podocarpi and differed from the former principally by its lack of microcondiophores and from P. podocarpi by having larger macroconidiophores and smooth conidia. Key morphological features to distinguish the accepted species in Heliocephala and Pseudopenidiella are also provided. In addition, Pseudopenidiella pini was excluded from the genus on the basis of its morphological features.

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          Most cited references 29

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          MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

           Robert Edgar (2004)
          We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                MDPI
                2076-2607
                27 March 2020
                April 2020
                : 8
                : 4
                Affiliations
                Unitat de Micologia, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, 43201 Tarragona, Spain; isabeliturrieta@ 123456gmail.com (I.I.-G.); josep.guarro@ 123456urv.cat (J.G.); josepa.gene@ 123456urv.cat (J.G.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: dania.garcias@ 123456urv.cat ; Tel.: + 34-673735073
                Article
                microorganisms-08-00478
                10.3390/microorganisms8040478
                7232372
                32230909
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                vietnam, taxonomy, phylogeny, dematiaceous fungi, hyphomycetes

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