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      Health-related and social factors predicting non-reemployment amongst newly unemployed

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      BMC Public Health

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Many researchers have examined the effect that mental health has on reemployment opportunities amongst the unemployed, but the results are inconclusive. Our aim in this study is to investigate the effects that different aspects of mental and physical health, as well as socio-demographic, social, and economic factors, have on reemployment.

          Methods

          A questionnaire was administered to 1,000 and answered by 502 newly registered unemployed Swedes, who were followed for one year using data from the Swedish National Labour Market Board. The differences between those reemployed and those not reemployed was analysed using stepwise logistic regression.

          Results

          General mental ill health amongst unemployed individuals measured by the General Health Questionnaire scale was associated with lower levels of reemployment after one year. This effect could not be explained by any of the scales measuring specific aspects of mental disease such as health-related level of function, rate of depression, burnout, or alcohol misuse. Instead being above 45, low control over one’s financial situation, being an immigrant, and visiting a physician during the last three months were better predictors of failure to be reemployed.

          Conclusion

          There are theoretical reasons to assume that psychological distress leads to a decreased reemployment rate amongst the unemployed. The results of this study partly endorse this hypothesis empirically, showing that general subjective mental distress decreases the rate of reemployment amongst newly unemployed individuals, although this effect was mediated by social and economic factors. Indicators of psychiatric disease had no significant effect on reemployment. The results of this study lead us to suggest the early introduction of financial counselling, psychological support, and other interventions for groups with lower reemployment rates.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Two shorter forms of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) depression symptoms index.

          Brief measurement devices can alleviate respondent burden and lower refusal rates in surveys. This article reports on a field test of two shorter forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) symptoms index in a multisite survey of persons 65 and older. Factor analyses demonstrate that the briefer forms tap the same symptoms dimensions as does the original CES-D, and reliability statistics indicate that they sacrifice little precision. Simple transformations are presented to how scores from the briefer forms can be compared to those of the original.
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            Unemployment and ill health: understanding the relationship.

             Paul Bartley (1994)
            To review research relevant to understanding the psychological, social, and biological pathways by which unemployment may affect health risk; to consider the importance of four specific mechanisms; and to indicate some directions for future research. Studies were chosen to illustrate the development of four major hypotheses regarding the relationship between unemployment and ill health, as well as the present state of knowledge. The review therefore includes some much-cited "classics" drawn from a long time span. Where recent reviews already exist relevant to individual mechanisms, these are referred to. Recent (since 1987) reports were sought by searching the BIDS data base. Particular effort was made to locate studies which enabled alternative hypotheses to be evaluated, and to point out where existing evidence is inconsistent or incomplete, indicating the need for further research. To understand the relationship between unemployment and ill health and mortality, four mechanisms need to be considered: the role of relative poverty; social isolation and loss of self esteem; health related behaviour (including that associated with membership of certain types of "subculture"); and the effect that a spell of unemployment has on subsequent employment patterns.
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              Job search and employment: a personality-motivational analysis and meta-analytic review.

              A motivational, self-regulatory conceptualization of job search was used to organize and investigate the relationships between personality, expectancies, self, social, motive, and biographical variables and individual differences in job search behavior and employment outcomes. Meta-analytic results indicated that all antecedent variables, except optimism, were significantly related to job search behavior, with estimated population correlations ranging from -.15 to .46. As expected, job search behavior was significantly and positively related to finding employment. Several antecedents of job search were also significantly related to employment success, although the size of these relationships was consistently smaller than those obtained for job search. Moderator analyses showed significant differences in the size of variable relationships for type of job search measure (effort vs. intensity) and sample type (job loser vs. employed job seeker vs. new entrant).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central
                1471-2458
                2012
                23 October 2012
                : 12
                : 893
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section for Social Medicine, Uppsala University, Box 564, Uppsala 751 22, Sweden
                Article
                1471-2458-12-893
                10.1186/1471-2458-12-893
                3560200
                23092291
                Copyright ©2012 Skärlund et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Public health

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