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      Effectiveness of darbepoetin alfa in multiple myeloma patients receiving chemotherapy including novel agents

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of darbepoetin alfa (DA) on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the need for transfusions in multiple myeloma (MM) patients receiving chemotherapy with novel agents.

          Methods

          Of 251 patients with MM who received DA therapy for at least 4 weeks, 142 who did not receive RBC transfusion during 4 weeks after DA initiation and started DA therapy at baseline Hb <10.0 g/dL were analyzed.

          Results

          After 4 weeks of DA therapy, 80 (60.6%) of 132 patients with evaluable data had Hb that increased ≥1.0 g/dL from baseline, while 50 (37.9%) had Hb that increased ≥2.0 g/dL from baseline. Pretreatment Hb level did not correlate with the proportion of patients with increased Hb. The median duration of DA therapy was 9.0 weeks. At the end of DA therapy, of 135 patients with evaluable data, 86 (60.6%) had Hb that increased ≥1.0 g/dL from baseline, while 67 (47.2%) had Hb that increased ≥2.0 g/dL from baseline. Stage III disease according to the International Staging System and absence of myeloma bone disease at diagnosis were independent predictors of higher Hb response during early DA therapy.

          Conclusion

          We demonstrated the efficacy of DA therapy in a homogeneous group of MM patients receiving chemotherapy. DA therapy significantly increased Hb concentration, regardless of baseline Hb level.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Recombinant human erythropoietins and cancer patients: updated meta-analysis of 57 studies including 9353 patients.

          This is an updated systematic review of 57 trials and 9353 cancer patients from articles, abstracts, and reports published between January 1, 1985, and April 30, 2005, on the effects of epoetin alfa and beta (i.e., epoetin) and darbepoetin alfa (i.e., darbepoetin). We included randomized controlled trials comparing epoetin or darbepoetin plus red blood cell transfusion with red blood cell transfusion alone for prophylaxis or treatment of anemia in cancer patients with or without concurrent antineoplastic therapy. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and conference proceedings were searched. Effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with fixed-effects models. Treatment with epoetin or darbepoetin statistically significantly reduced the risk for red blood cell transfusions (relative risk [RR] = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.68; 42 trials and 6510 patients) and improved hematologic response (RR = 3.43, 95% CI = 3.07 to 3.84; 22 trials and 4307 patients). Treatment with epoetin or darbepoetin increased the risk of thrombo-embolic events (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.06; 35 trials and 6769 patients). Uncertainties remain as to whether and how epoetin or darbepoetin affects overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.18; 42 trials and 8167 patients). Caution is advised when using epoetin or darbepoetin in combination with thrombogenic chemotherapeutic agents or for cancer patients who are at high risk for thrombo-embolic events.
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            Efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa in anaemic patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

            This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa in anaemic patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies. Patients (n = 344) with lymphoma or myeloma received darbepoetin alfa 2.25 microg/kg or placebo s.c., once weekly for 12 weeks. The percentage of patients achieving a haemoglobin response was significantly higher in the darbepoetin alfa group (60%) than in the placebo group (18%) (P < 0.001), regardless of baseline endogenous erythropoietin level. However, increased responsiveness was observed in patients with lower baseline erythropoietin levels. Darbepoetin alfa also resulted in higher mean changes in haemoglobin than placebo from baseline to the last value during the treatment phase (1.80 g/dl vs 0.19 g/dl) and after 12 weeks of treatment (2.66 g/dl vs 0.69 g/dl). A significantly lower percentage of patients in the darbepoetin alfa group received red blood cell transfusions than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). The efficacy of darbepoetin alfa was consistent for patients with lymphoma or myeloma. Improvements in quality of life were also observed with darbepoetin alfa. The overall safety profile of darbepoetin alfa was consistent with that expected for this patient population. Darbepoetin alfa significantly increased haemoglobin and reduced red blood cell transfusions in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies receiving chemotherapy.
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              International Myeloma Working Group recommendations for global myeloma care.

              Recent developments have led to remarkable improvements in the assessment and treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). New technologies have become available to precisely evaluate the biology and extent of the disease, including information about cytogenetics and genetic abnormalities, extramedullary manifestations and minimal residual disease. New, more effective drugs have been introduced into clinical practice, which enable clinicians to significantly improve the outcome of patients but also pose new challenges for the prevention and management of their specific side effects. Given these various new options and challenges, it is important to identify the minimal requirements for diagnosis and treatment of patients, as access to the most sophisticated advances may vary depending on local circumstances. Here, we propose the minimal requirements and possible options for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of patients with multiple myeloma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood Res
                Blood Res
                BR
                Blood research
                Korean Society of Hematology; Korean Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation; Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology; Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis
                2287-979X
                2288-0011
                June 2018
                25 June 2018
                : 53
                : 2
                : 123-129
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hematology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Leukemia Research Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Chang-Ki Min, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Hematology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpodaero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, Korea. ckmin@ 123456catholic.ac.kr
                Article
                10.5045/br.2018.53.2.123
                6021573
                © 2018 Korean Society of Hematology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Health and Welfare, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003625;
                Award ID: A120175
                Categories
                Original Article

                multiple myeloma, anemia, erythropoietin

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