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      Genome-Wide Analysis of Group A Streptococci Reveals a Mutation That Modulates Global Phenotype and Disease Specificity

      1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 , *

      PLoS Pathogens

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Many human pathogens produce phenotypic variants as a means to circumvent the host immune system and enhance survival and, as a potential consequence, exhibit increased virulence. For example, it has been known for almost 90 y that clinical isolates of the human bacterial pathogen group A streptococci (GAS) have extensive phenotypic heterogeneity linked to variation in virulence. However, the complete underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not been defined. Expression microarray analysis of nine clinical isolates identified two fundamentally different transcriptomes, designated pharyngeal transcriptome profile (PTP) and invasive transcriptome profile (ITP). PTP and ITP GAS differed in approximately 10% of the transcriptome, including at least 23 proven or putative virulence factor genes. ITP organisms were recovered from skin lesions of mice infected subcutaneously with PTP GAS and were significantly more able to survive phagocytosis and killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Complete genome resequencing of a mouse-derived ITP GAS revealed that the organism differed from its precursor by only a 7-bp frameshift mutation in the gene (covS) encoding the sensor kinase component of a two-component signal transduction system implicated in virulence. Genetic complementation, and sequence analysis of covR/S in 42 GAS isolates confirmed the central role of covR/S in transcriptome, exoproteome, and virulence modulation. Genome-wide analysis provides a heretofore unattained understanding of phenotypic variation and disease specificity in microbial pathogens, resulting in new avenues for vaccine and therapeutics research.

          Synopsis

          Phenotypic heterogeneity within an infecting population is a strategy commonly used by bacterial pathogens to evade the host immune system and enhance survival. Such phenotypic variation has been observed for the human pathogen group A streptococci (GAS), which can cause a wide range of diseases with differing severity. However, the underlying mechanisms that control this variation, and the survival- and virulence-associated effects of this variation, have not been fully elucidated.

          By assaying total gene expression the authors found that clinical GAS isolates from invasive and pharyngeal diseases had distinct gene expression patterns during growth in standard laboratory media. These two gene expression patterns conferred distinct virulence-associated attributes on the expressing GAS strain, as assessed using bacteremia and soft-tissue infection models of disease. Likewise, the ability to survive the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils was significantly different between GAS strains with the two distinct expression patterns. Transition from one gene expression pattern to the other required the mutation of the two-component signal transduction system CovRS (control of virulence R/S). The authors conclude that the ability of GAS to remodel its transcriptome plays a major contribution in its ability to colonize distinct niches of the human body and cause disease.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections.

          Group A streptococci are model extracellular gram-positive pathogens responsible for pharyngitis, impetigo, rheumatic fever, and acute glomerulonephritis. A resurgence of invasive streptococcal diseases and rheumatic fever has appeared in outbreaks over the past 10 years, with a predominant M1 serotype as well as others identified with the outbreaks. emm (M protein) gene sequencing has changed serotyping, and new virulence genes and new virulence regulatory networks have been defined. The emm gene superfamily has expanded to include antiphagocytic molecules and immunoglobulin-binding proteins with common structural features. At least nine superantigens have been characterized, all of which may contribute to toxic streptococcal syndrome. An emerging theme is the dichotomy between skin and throat strains in their epidemiology and genetic makeup. Eleven adhesins have been reported, and surface plasmin-binding proteins have been defined. The strong resistance of the group A streptococcus to phagocytosis is related to factor H and fibrinogen binding by M protein and to disarming complement component C5a by the C5a peptidase. Molecular mimicry appears to play a role in autoimmune mechanisms involved in rheumatic fever, while nephritis strain-associated proteins may lead to immune-mediated acute glomerulonephritis. Vaccine strategies have focused on recombinant M protein and C5a peptidase vaccines, and mucosal vaccine delivery systems are under investigation.
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            Phase and antigenic variation in bacteria.

            Phase and antigenic variation result in a heterogenic phenotype of a clonal bacterial population, in which individual cells either express the phase-variable protein(s) or not, or express one of multiple antigenic forms of the protein, respectively. This form of regulation has been identified mainly, but by no means exclusively, for a wide variety of surface structures in animal pathogens and is implicated as a virulence strategy. This review provides an overview of the many bacterial proteins and structures that are under the control of phase or antigenic variation. The context is mainly within the role of the proteins and variation for pathogenesis, which reflects the main body of literature. The occurrence of phase variation in expression of genes not readily recognizable as virulence factors is highlighted as well, to illustrate that our current knowledge is incomplete. From recent genome sequence analysis, it has become clear that phase variation may be more widespread than is currently recognized, and a brief discussion is included to show how genome sequence analysis can provide novel information, as well as its limitations. The current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to phase variation and antigenic variation are reviewed, and the way in which these mechanisms form part of the general regulatory network of the cell is addressed. Arguments both for and against a role of phase and antigenic variation in immune evasion are presented and put into new perspective by distinguishing between a role in bacterial persistence in a host and a role in facilitating evasion of cross-immunity. Finally, examples are presented to illustrate that phase-variable gene expression should be taken into account in the development of diagnostic assays and in the interpretation of experimental results and epidemiological studies.
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              Evolutionary origin and emergence of a highly successful clone of serotype M1 group a Streptococcus involved multiple horizontal gene transfer events.

              To better understand the molecular events involved in the origin of new pathogenic bacteria, we studied the evolution of a highly virulent clone of serotype M1 group A Streptococcus (GAS). Genomic, DNA-DNA microarray, and single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses indicated that this clone evolved through a series of horizontal gene transfer events that involved (1) the acquisition of prophages encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and extracellular DNases and (2) the reciprocal recombination of a 36-kb chromosomal region encoding the extracellular toxins NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase) and streptolysin O (SLO). These gene transfer events were associated with significantly increased production of SLO and NADase. Virtual identity in the 36-kb region present in contemporary serotype M1 and M12 isolates suggests that a serotype M12 strain served as the donor of this region. Multiple horizontal gene transfer events were a crucial factor in the evolutionary origin and emergence of a very abundant contemporary clone of serotype M1 GAS.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Pathog
                PLoS Pathogens
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1553-7366
                1553-7374
                January 2006
                27 January 2006
                : 2
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas, United States of America
                [2 ] Center for Human Bacterial Pathogenesis Research, Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America
                [3 ] Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
                University of California San Diego, United States of America
                Author notes
                * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jmmusser@ 123456tmh.tmc.edu
                Article
                05-PLPA-RA-0191R2 plpa-02-01-04
                10.1371/journal.ppat.0020005
                1354197
                16446783
                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article
                Epidemiology - Public Health
                Evolution
                Infectious Diseases
                Microbiology
                Systems Biology
                Eubacteria
                Custom metadata
                Sumby P, Whitney AR, Graviss EA, DeLeo FR, Musser JM (2006) Genome-wide analysis of group A streptococci reveals a mutation that modulates global phenotype and disease specificity. PLoS Pathog 2(1): e5.

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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