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      Progress towards in Vivo Use of siRNAs

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          Abstract

          RNA interference (RNAi) has become the method of choice to suppress gene expression in vitro. It is also emerging as a powerful tool for in vivo research with over 90 studies published using synthetic small interfering RNAs in mammals. These reports demonstrate the potential for use of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as therapeutic agents, especially in the areas of cancer and viral infection. The number of reports using siRNAs for functional genomics applications, for validation of targets for small-molecule drug development programs, and to address questions of basic biology will rapidly grow as methods and protocols for use in animals become more established. This review will first discuss aspects of RNAi biochemistry and biology that impact in vivo use, especially as relates to experimental design, and will then provide an overview of published work with a focus on methodology.

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          Most cited references 201

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          Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA.

          Interferons (IFNs) are critical for protection from viral infection, but the pathways linking virus recognition to IFN induction remain poorly understood. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells produce vast amounts of IFN-alpha in response to the wild-type influenza virus. Here, we show that this requires endosomal recognition of influenza genomic RNA and signaling by means of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and MyD88. Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of nonviral origin also induce TLR7-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines. These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses.
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            MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing.

             V Kim (2005)
            The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) took many by surprise because of their unorthodox features and widespread functions. These tiny, approximately 22-nucleotide, RNAs control several pathways including developmental timing, haematopoiesis, organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and possibly even tumorigenesis. Among the most pressing questions regarding this unusual class of regulatory miRNA-encoding genes is how miRNAs are produced in cells and how the genes themselves are controlled by various regulatory networks.
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              Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi.

              Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is carried out by RISC, the RNA-induced silencing complex. RISC contains two signature components, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Argonaute family proteins. Here, we show that the multiple Argonaute proteins present in mammals are both biologically and biochemically distinct, with a single mammalian family member, Argonaute2, being responsible for messenger RNA cleavage activity. This protein is essential for mouse development, and cells lacking Argonaute2 are unable to mount an experimental response to siRNAs. Mutations within a cryptic ribonuclease H domain within Argonaute2, as identified by comparison with the structure of an archeal Argonaute protein, inactivate RISC. Thus, our evidence supports a model in which Argonaute contributes "Slicer" activity to RISC, providing the catalytic engine for RNAi.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mol Ther
                Mol. Ther
                Molecular Therapy
                The American Society of Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
                1525-0016
                1525-0024
                14 December 2016
                April 2006
                14 December 2016
                : 13
                : 4
                : 644-670
                Affiliations
                Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., Coralville, IA 52241, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]To whom correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed at Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., 1710 Commercial Park, Coralville, IA 52241, USA. Fax: +1 319 626 8444 mbehlke@ 123456idtdna.com
                Article
                S1525-0016(06)00006-2
                10.1016/j.ymthe.2006.01.001
                7106286
                16481219
                Copyright © 2006 The American Society of Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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