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      Identification of Significant Gene Signatures and Prognostic Biomarkers for Patients With Cervical Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatic Methods


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          Cervical cancer is the leading cause of death with gynecological malignancies. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and biomarkers for cervical cancer by integrated bioinformatic analysis. We employed RNA-sequencing details of 254 cervical squamous cell carcinomas and 3 normal samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To explore the distinct pathways, messenger RNA expression was submitted to a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and protein–protein interaction network analysis of differentially expressed genes were performed. Then, we conducted pathway enrichment analysis for modules acquired in protein–protein interaction analysis and obtained a list of pathways in every module. After intersecting the results from the 3 approaches, we evaluated the survival rates of both mutual pathways and genes in the pathway, and 5 survival-related genes were obtained. Finally, Cox hazards ratio analysis of these 5 genes was performed. DNA replication pathway ( P < .001; 12 genes included) was suggested to have the strongest association with the prognosis of cervical squamous cancer. In total, 5 of the 12 genes, namely, minichromosome maintenance 2, minichromosome maintenance 4, minichromosome maintenance 5, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and ribonuclease H2 subunit A were significantly correlated with survival. Minichromosome maintenance 5 was shown as an independent prognostic biomarker for patients with cervical cancer. This study identified a distinct pathway (DNA replication). Five genes which may be prognostic biomarkers and minichromosome maintenance 5 were identified as independent prognostic biomarkers for patients with cervical cancer.

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          Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

          Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention

            Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors (R). We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutations are responsible for two-thirds of the mutations in human cancers. All of these results are consistent with epidemiological estimates of the fraction of cancers that can be prevented by changes in the environment. Moreover, they accentuate the importance of early detection and intervention to reduce deaths from the many cancers arising from unavoidable R mutations.
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              Characterization of human disease phenotypes associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR, and IFIH1.

              Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disease occurring due to mutations in any of TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR or IFIH1. We report on 374 patients from 299 families with mutations in these seven genes. Most patients conformed to one of two fairly stereotyped clinical profiles; either exhibiting an in utero disease-onset (74 patients; 22.8% of all patients where data were available), or a post-natal presentation, usually within the first year of life (223 patients; 68.6%), characterized by a sub-acute encephalopathy and a loss of previously acquired skills. Other clinically distinct phenotypes were also observed; particularly, bilateral striatal necrosis (13 patients; 3.6%) and non-syndromic spastic paraparesis (12 patients; 3.4%). We recorded 69 deaths (19.3% of patients with follow-up data). Of 285 patients for whom data were available, 210 (73.7%) were profoundly disabled, with no useful motor, speech and intellectual function. Chilblains, glaucoma, hypothyroidism, cardiomyopathy, intracerebral vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, bowel inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen frequently enough to be confirmed as real associations with the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome phenotype. We observed a robust relationship between mutations in all seven genes with increased type I interferon activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and the increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. We recorded a positive correlation between the level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon activity assayed within one year of disease presentation and the degree of subsequent disability. Interferon-stimulated gene transcripts remained high in most patients, indicating an ongoing disease process. On the basis of substantial morbidity and mortality, our data highlight the urgent need to define coherent treatment strategies for the phenotypes associated with mutations in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related genes. Our findings also make it clear that a window of therapeutic opportunity exists relevant to the majority of affected patients and indicate that the assessment of type I interferon activity might serve as a useful biomarker in future clinical trials.

                Author and article information

                Technol Cancer Res Treat
                Technol. Cancer Res. Treat
                Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                11 April 2018
                : 17
                : 1533033818767455
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Molecular and Translational Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
                [4 ]Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                [*]Yan’e Gao, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710004, People’s Republic of China. Email: drgao1991@ 123456hotmail.com
                [*]Pei Yang, MD, Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China. Email: oryangpei@ 123456163.com
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2018

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                : 08 August 2017
                : 13 February 2018
                : 26 February 2018
                Funded by: the Sci-tech Program Foundation of Shannxi Province, China;
                Award ID: 2017SF-013
                Original Article
                Custom metadata

                cervical cancer,bioinformatic analysis,dna replication,survival analysis,biomarker,minichromosome maintenance 5


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