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      Comparison of Dry Needling versus Orthopedic Manual Therapy in Patients with Myofascial Chronic Neck Pain: A Single-Blind, Randomized Pilot Study


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          Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three interventions for the treatment of myofascial chronic neck pain. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: orthopedic manual therapy (OMT), dry needling and stretching (DN-S), and soft tissue techniques (STT). All groups received two treatment sessions with a 48 h time interval. Outcome measures included neck pain intensity measured using a visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion (ROM), pressure pain threshold for measuring mechanical hyperalgesia, and two self-reported questionnaires (neck disability index and pain catastrophizing scale). Results. The ANOVA revealed significant differences for the group × time interaction for neck disability, neck pain intensity, and pain catastrophizing. The DN-S and OMT groups reduced neck disability. Only the OMT group showed decreases in mechanical hyperalgesia and pain catastrophizing. The cervical ROM increased in OMT (i.e., flexion, side-bending, and rotation) and DN-S (i.e., side-bending and rotation) groups. Conclusions. The three interventions are all effective in reducing pain intensity. Reduction in mechanical hyperalgesia and pain catastrophizing was only observed in the OMT group. Cervical ROM improved in the DN-S and OMT groups and also neck disability being only clinically relevant for OMT group.

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          Eta-Squared and Partial Eta-Squared in Fixed Factor Anova Designs

           J J Cohen (1973)
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            Psychometric properties of the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Pain Rating Scale in patients with mechanical neck pain.

            To examine the psychometric properties including test-retest reliability, construct validity, and minimum levels of detectable and clinically important change for the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain in a cohort of patients with neck pain. Single-group repeated-measures design. Outpatient physical therapy (PT) clinics. Patients (N=137) presenting to PT with a primary report of neck pain. Not applicable. All patients completed the NDI and the NRS at the baseline examination and at a follow-up. At the time of the follow-up, all patients also completed the global rating of change, which was used to dichotomize patients as improved or stable. Baseline and follow-up scores were used to determine the test-retest reliability, construct validity, and minimal levels of detectable and clinically important change for both the NDI and NRS. Test-retest reliability was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (NDI ICC=.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], .25-.67; NRS ICC=.76; 95% CI, .51-.87). The area under the curve was .83 (95% CI, .75-.90) for the NDI score and .85 (95% CI, .78-.93) for the NRS score for determining between stable and improved patients. Thresholds for the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for the NDI were 19-percentage points and 1.3 for the NRS. Both the NDI and NRS exhibit fair to moderate test-retest reliability in patients with mechanical neck pain. Both instruments also showed adequate responsiveness in this patient population. However, the MCID required to be certain that the change in scores has surpassed a level that could be contributed to measurement error for the NDI was twice that which has previously been reported. Therefore the ongoing analyses of the properties of the NDI in a patient population with neck pain are warranted.
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              Biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation are elevated in sites near to and remote from active myofascial trigger points.

              To investigate the biochemical milieu of the upper trapezius muscle in subjects with active, latent, or absent myofascial trigger points (MTPs) and to contrast this with that of the noninvolved gastrocnemius muscle. We used a microanalytic technique, including needle insertions at standardized locations in subjects identified as active (having neck pain and MTP), latent (no neck pain but with MTP), or normal (no neck pain, no MTP). We followed a predetermined sampling schedule; first in the trapezius muscle and then in normal gastrocnemius muscle, to measure pH, bradykinin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, serotonin, and norepinephrine, using immunocapillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography. Pressure algometry was obtained. We compared analyte concentrations among groups with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. A biomedical research facility. Nine healthy volunteer subjects. Not applicable. Preselected analyte concentrations. Within the trapezius muscle, concentrations for all analytes were higher in active subjects than in latent or normal subjects (P<.002); pH was lower (P<.03). At needle insertion, analyte concentrations in the trapezius for the active group were always higher (pH not different) than concentrations in the gastrocnemius muscle. At all times within the gastrocnemius, the active group had higher concentrations of all analytes than did subjects in the latent and normal groups (P<.05); pH was lower (P<.01). We have shown the feasibility of continuous, in vivo recovery of small molecules from soft tissue without harmful effects. Subjects with active MTPs in the trapezius muscle have a biochemical milieu of selected inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides, cytokines, and catecholamines different from subjects with latent or absent MTPs in their trapezius. These concentrations also differ quantitatively from a remote, uninvolved site in the gastrocnemius muscle. The milieu of the gastrocnemius in subjects with active MTPs in the trapezius differs from subjects without active MTPs.

                Author and article information

                Pain Res Treat
                Pain Res Treat
                Pain Research and Treatment
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                10 November 2015
                : 2015
                1Faculty of Health Science, Department of Physiotherapy, The Center for Advanced Studies University La Salle, Faculty of Health Science, The Autonomous University of Madrid, Aravaca, Madrid, Spain
                2Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, King Juan Carlos University, Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain
                3Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain
                4Motion in Brains Research Group, The Center for Advanced Studies University La Salle, The Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain
                5Institute of Neuroscience and Craniofacial Pain (INDCRAN), Madrid, Spain
                6Movement Analysis Laboratory, University Hospital Niño Jesus, Madrid, Spain
                7Department of Physiotherapy, European University of Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Giustino Varrassi

                Copyright © 2015 Irene Campa-Moran et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Anesthesiology & Pain management


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