Kevin D. Hill , MD, MS a , Donald P. Frush , MD b , B. Kelly Han , MD c , Brian G. Abbott , MD d , Aimee K. Armstrong , MD e , Robert A. DeKemp , PhD f , Andrew C. Glatz , MD, MSCE g , S. Bruce Greenberg , MD h , Alexander Sheldon Herbert , RT i , Henri Justino , MD j , Douglas Mah , MD k , Mahadevappa Mahesh , PhD l , Cynthia K. Rigsby , MD m , n , Timothy C. Slesnick , MD o , Keith J. Strauss , MSC p , Sigal Trattner , PhD q , Mohan N. Viswanathan , MD r , Andrew J. Einstein , MD, PhD s
18 May 2017
There is a need for consensus recommendations for ionizing radiation dose optimization during multimodality medical imaging in children with congenital and acquired heart disease (CAHD). These children often have complex diseases and may be exposed to a relatively high cumulative burden of ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures, including cardiac computed tomography, nuclear cardiology studies, and fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and interventional catheterization and electrophysiology procedures. Although these imaging procedures are all essential to the care of children with CAHD and have contributed to meaningfully improved outcomes in these patients, exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with potential risks, including an increased lifetime attributable risk of cancer. The goal of these recommendations is to encourage informed imaging to achieve appropriate study quality at the lowest achievable dose. Other strategies to improve care include a patient-centered approach to imaging, emphasizing education and informed decision making and programmatic approaches to ensure appropriate dose monitoring. Looking ahead, there is a need for standardization of dose metrics across imaging modalities, so as to encourage comparative effectiveness studies across the spectrum of CAHD in children.