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      Efficacy and HIV drug resistance profile of second-line ART among patients having received long-term first-line regimens in rural China

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          Abstract

          Antiretroviral therapy has significantly expanded and an increased proportion of patients have switched to second-line regimens in China. We describe the outcomes of second-line therapy among patients having received long-term first-line ART. A prospective follow-up study was conducted in rural areas in China. We compared the virological, immunological outcomes and genotypic drug resistance (DR) profiles before and after regimen switches. A total of 303 patients were enrolled, 283 (93.4%) were retained at 12 months. Of 90 participants with HIV-RNA ≥ 1000 copies/ml before switch, the proportion of viral load (VL) ≥ 1000 copies/ml at 6 and 12 months was 49.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Of 213 patients with HIV-RNA < 1000 copies/ml before switch, the proportion of VL ≥ 1000 copies/ml at 6 and 12 months was 4.8% and 6.5%, respectively. The rates of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs, PIs decreased from 65.5%, 53.3%, and 1.1% before regimen switch to 26.8%, 18.3%, and 0% at 12 months, respectively. DDI-based initial ART regimens and missing doses in past month were associated with HIV RNA ≥ 1000 copies/ml at 12 months. The results showed that patients having received long-term first-line ART and experiencing virological failure had good virological outcomes after switching to second-line treatment in China.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Web resources for HIV type 1 genotypic-resistance test interpretation.

          Interpreting the results of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic drug-resistance tests is one of the most difficult tasks facing clinicians caring for HIV-1-infected patients. There are many drug-resistance mutations, and they arise in complex patterns that cause varying levels of drug resistance. In addition, HIV-1 exists in vivo as a virus population containing many genomic variants. Genotypic-resistance testing detects the drug-resistance mutations present in the most common plasma virus variants but may not detect drug-resistance mutations present in minor virus variants. Therefore, interpretation systems are necessary to determine the phenotypic and clinical significance of drug-resistance mutations found in a patient's plasma virus population. We describe the scientific principles of HIV-1 genotypic-resistance test interpretation and the most commonly used Web-based resources for clinicians ordering genotypic drug-resistance tests.
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            Scaling up of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a rural district of Malawi: an effectiveness assessment.

            The recording of outcomes from large-scale, simplified HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is critical. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of such a programme held by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in the Chiradzulu district, Malawi. We scaled up and simplified HAART in this programme since August, 2002. We analysed survival indicators, CD4 count evolution, virological response, and adherence to treatment. We included adults who all started HAART 6 months or more before the analysis. HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load and self-reported adherence were assessed on a subsample of patients, and antiretroviral resistance mutations were analysed in plasma with viral loads greater than 1000 copies per mL. Analysis was by intention to treat. Of the 1308 patients who were eligible, 827 (64%) were female, the median age was 34.9 years (IQR 29.9-41.0), and 1023 (78%) received d4T/3TC/NVP (stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) as a fixed-dose combination. At baseline, 1266 individuals (97%) were HAART-naive, 357 (27%) were at WHO stage IV, 311 (33%) had a body-mass index of less than 18.5 kg/m2, and 208 (21%) had a CD4 count lower than 50 cells per muL. At follow-up (median 8.3 months, IQR 5.5-13.1), 967 (74%) were still on HAART, 243 (19%) had died, 91 (7%) were lost to follow-up, and seven (0.5%) discontinued treatment. Low body-mass index, WHO stage IV, male sex, and baseline CD4 count lower than 50 cells per muL were independent determinants of death in the first 6 months. At 12 months, the probability of individuals still in care was 0.76 (95% CI 0.73-0.78) and the median CD4 gain was 165 (IQR 67-259) cells per muL. In the cross-sectional survey (n=398), 334 (84%) had a viral load of less than 400 copies per mL. Of several indicators measuring adherence, self-reported poor adherence (<80%) in the past 4 days was the best predictor of detectable viral load (odds ratio 5.4, 95% CI 1.9-15.6). These data show that large numbers of people can rapidly benefit from antiretroviral therapy in rural resource-poor settings and strongly supports the implementation of such large-scale simplified programmes in Africa.
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              Effect of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment and increased treatment coverage on HIV-related mortality in China: a national observational cohort study.

              Overall HIV mortality rates in China have not been reported. In this analysis we assess overall mortality in treatment-eligible adults with HIV and attempt to identify risk factors for HIV-related mortality. We used data from the national HIV epidemiology and treatment databases to identify individuals aged 15 years or older with HIV who were eligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy between 1985 and 2009. Mortality rates were calculated in terms of person-years, with risk factors determined by Cox proportional hazard regression. Treatment coverage was calculated as the proportion of time that patients who were eligible for treatment received treatment, with risk factors for not receiving treatment identified by use of logistic regression. Of 323,252 people reported as having HIV in China by the end of 2009, 145,484 (45%) were identified as treatment-eligible and included in this analysis. Median CD4 count was 201 cells per μL (IQR 71-315) at HIV diagnosis and 194 cells per μL (73-293) when first declared eligible for treatment. Overall mortality decreased from 39·3 per 100 person-years in 2002 to 14·2 per 100 person-years in 2009, with treatment coverage concomitantly increasing from almost zero to 63·4%. By 2009, mortality was higher and treatment coverage lower in injecting drug users (15·9 deaths per 100 person-years; 42·7% coverage) and those infected sexually (17·5 deaths per 100 person-years; 61·7% coverage), compared with those infected through plasma donation or blood transfusion (6·7 deaths per 100 person-years; 80·2% coverage). The two strongest risk factors for HIV-related mortality were not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 4·35, 95% CI 4·10-4·62) and having a CD4 count of less than 50 cells per μL when first declared eligible for treatment (7·92, 7·33-8.57). An urgent need exists for earlier HIV diagnosis and better access to treatment for injecting drug users and patients infected with HIV sexually, especially before they become severely immunosuppressed. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention of the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                08 October 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases , Beijing, China
                [2 ]Guangxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Nanning, China
                [3 ]Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Zhengzhou, China
                [4 ]Xincai Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Henan, China
                [5 ]Queshan Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Henan, China
                [6 ]Weishi Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Henan, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                srep14823
                10.1038/srep14823
                4597210
                26445885
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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