2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Burden of acute kidney injury and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) vary among critically ill patients. Outcomes are often not corrected for severity or duration of AKI. Our objective was to analyse whether a new variable, AKI burden, would outperform 1) presence of AKI, 2) highest AKI stage, or 3) AKI duration in predicting 90-day mortality.

          Methods

          Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria using creatinine, urine output and renal replacement therapy were used to diagnose AKI. AKI burden was defined as AKI stage multiplied with the number of days that each stage was present (maximum five), divided by the maximum possible score yielding a proportion. The AKI burden as a predictor of 90-day mortality was assessed in two independent cohorts (Finnish Acute Kidney Injury, FINNAKI and Simple Intensive Care Studies I, SICS-I) by comparing four multivariate logistic regression models that respectively incorporated either the presence of AKI, the highest AKI stage, the duration of AKI, or the AKI burden.

          Results

          In the FINNAKI cohort 1096 of 2809 patients (39%) had AKI and 90-day mortality of the cohort was 23%. Median AKI burden was 0.17 (IQR 0.07–0.50), 1.0 being the maximum. The model including AKI burden (area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) 0.78, 0.76–0.80) outperformed the models using AKI presence (AUROC 0.77, 0.75–0.79, p = 0.026) or AKI severity (AUROC 0.77, 0.75–0.79, p = 0.012), but not AKI duration (AUROC 0.77, 0.75–0.79, p = 0.06). In the SICS-I, 603 of 1075 patients (56%) had AKI and 90-day mortality was 28%. Median AKI burden was 0.19 (IQR 0.08–0.46). The model using AKI burden performed better (AUROC 0.77, 0.74–0.80) than the models using AKI presence (AUROC 0.75, 0.71–0.78, p = 0.001), AKI severity (AUROC 0.76, 0.72–0.79. p = 0.008) or AKI duration (AUROC 0.76, 0.73–0.79, p = 0.009).

          Conclusion

          AKI burden, which appreciates both severity and duration of AKI, was superior to using only presence or the highest stage of AKI in predicting 90-day mortality. Using AKI burden or other more granular methods may be helpful in future epidemiological studies of AKI.

          Related collections

          Most cited references16

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

            Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Incidence, risk factors and 90-day mortality of patients with acute kidney injury in Finnish intensive care units: the FINNAKI study.

              We aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Finnish ICUs. This prospective, observational, multi-centre study comprised adult emergency admissions and elective patients whose stay exceeded 24 h during a 5-month period in 17 Finnish ICUs. We defined AKI first by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria supplemented with a baseline creatinine and second with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We screened the patients' AKI status and risk factors for up to 5 days. We included 2,901 patients. The incidence (95 % confidence interval) of AKI was 39.3 % (37.5-41.1 %). The incidence was 17.2 % (15.8-18.6 %) for stage 1, 8.0 % (7.0-9.0 %) for stage 2 and 14.1 % (12.8-15.4 %) for stage 3 AKI. Of the 2,901 patients 296 [10.2 % (9.1-11.3 %)] received renal replacement therapy. We received an identical classification with the new KDIGO criteria. The population-based incidence (95 % CI) of ICU-treated AKI was 746 (717-774) per million population per year (reference population: 3,671,143, i.e. 85 % of the Finnish adult population). In logistic regression, pre-ICU hypovolaemia, diuretics, colloids and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for AKI. Hospital mortality (95 % CI) for AKI patients was 25.6 % (23.0-28.2 %) and the 90-day mortality for AKI patients was 33.7 % (30.9-36.5 %). All AKIN stages were independently associated with 90-day mortality. The incidence of AKI in the critically ill in Finland was comparable to previous large multi-centre ICU studies. Hospital mortality (26 %) in AKI patients appeared comparable to or lower than in other studies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                r.wiersema@umcg.nl
                Journal
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2369
                31 December 2019
                31 December 2019
                2020
                : 21
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9558 4598, GRID grid.4494.d, Department of Critical Care, University of Groningen, , University Medical Center Groningen, ; Groningen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, Division of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, , University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9558 4598, GRID grid.4494.d, Department of Internal medicine, University of Groningen, , University Medical Center Groningen, ; Groningen, The Netherlands
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9950 5666, GRID grid.15485.3d, Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, ; Helsinki, Finland
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0624 9499, GRID grid.415813.a, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, , Lapland Central Hospital, ; Rovaniemi, Finland
                [6 ]Department of Intensive Care, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2413-2852
                Article
                1645
                10.1186/s12882-019-1645-y
                6938017
                31892313
                27dacedc-bbfa-462e-a76a-4385427db064
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 8 May 2019
                : 28 November 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: Academy of Finland
                Award ID: 317061
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Sigrid Juselius Foundation
                Funded by: Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation
                Funded by: Helsinki University Hospital
                Award ID: TYH2013343, TYH2016243, TYH 2017241
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Nephrology
                acute kidney injury,burden,mortality,critically ill,prediction models
                Nephrology
                acute kidney injury, burden, mortality, critically ill, prediction models

                Comments

                Comment on this article