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      An inventory of Ichthyofauna of the Pindaré River drainage, Mearim River basin, Northeastern Brazil Translated title: Inventário da ictiofauna da drenagem do rio Pindaré, bacia do rio Mearim, nordeste do Brasil

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          Abstract: In the present work, we conducted an extensive long-lasting inventory of the fishes, using different collection methodologies, covering almost the entire Pindaré River drainage, one of the principal tributaries of the Mearim River basin, an area included in the Amazônia Legal region, northeastern Brazil. We reported 101 species, just three of them being non-native, demonstrating that the composition of this studied fish community is majority composed of native species. We found a predominance of species of the orders Characiformes and Siluriformes, corroborating the pattern usually found for the Neotropical fish fauna. Similar to other studies, this inventory was mainly dominated by small characids, representing 21% of the species herein recorded. When comparing the present survey with other species lists published for this region (including the States of Maranhão and Piaui), we can conclude that the freshwater fish fauna of the State of Maranhão is probably still underestimated. We reported 41 more species, and one more species than Soares (2005, 2013) and Abreu et al. (2019) recorded for the entire Mearim River basin, respectively. We believe, however, that the number of species presented by Abreu et al. (2019) is overestimated. We compared our results with all other freshwater fish species inventories performed for the hydrological units Maranhão and Parnaíba sensu Hubbert & Renno (2006). With these comparisons, we concluded that our results evidenced that a high effort was put in the inventory here presented. The two works including more species recorded from coastal river basins of the hydrological units Maranhão and Parnaíba were the works published by Ramos et al. (2014) for the Parnaíba River basin, one of the main and larger river basin of Brazil, and the compiled data published by Castro & Dourado (2011) for the Mearim, Pindaré, Pericumã, and upper Turiaçu River drainages, including 146 and 109 species, respectively. Our survey recorded only 45 less species than Ramos et al. (2014), and eight less species than Castro & Dourado (2011). However, it is essential to emphasize that the number of species presented by Castro & Dourado (2011) is probably overestimated since they did not update and check the taxonomic status of the species of their compiled data. In several cases, they considered more than one name for the same species.

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          Resumo: No presente trabalho nós conduzimos um inventário de peixes extensivo e de longa duração, utilizando diferentes métodos de coletas, e cobrindo a vasta maioria da drenagem do Rio Pindaré, um dos principais afluentes da bacia do Rio Mearim, uma área incluída na região da Amazônia Legal, nordeste do Brasil. Nós registramos 101 espécies, apenas três delas sendo exóticas, demonstrando que a composição dessa comunidade de peixes estudada é majoritariamente composta por espécies nativas. Nós encontramos uma predominância de espécies das ordens Characiformes e Siluriformes, corroborando com o padrão geralmente encontrado na fauna de peixes Neotropicais. De maneira similar a outros estudos, o presente inventário foi principalmente dominado por espécies de pequenos caracídeos, representando 21% das espécies aqui registradas. Quando comparamos o presente inventário com outros inventários realizados para a região (incluindo os Estados do Maranhão e Piauí), nós podemos concluir que a fauna de peixes de água doce do estado está provavelmente subestimada. Nós registramos 41 mais espécies, e uma espécie a mais do que Soares (2005, 2013) e Abreu et al. (2019) registraram para a bacia inteira do Rio Mearim, respectivamente. Entretanto, nós acreditamos que o número de espécies apresentados por Abreu et al. (2019) está superestimado. Nós comparamos nossos resultados com todos os outros inventários de peixes de água doce realizados nas unidades hidrológicas Maranhão e Parnaíba sensu Hubbert & Renno (2006). Com essas comparações pudemos concluir que nosso resultado evidencia o grande esforço colocado no inventário aqui apresentado. Os dois trabalhos incluindo mais espécies registradas para bacias costeiras nas unidades hidrológicas Maranhão e Parnaíba foram os trabalhos publicados por Ramos et al. (2014) para a bacia do Rio Parnaíba, uma das principais e maiores bacias hidrográficas do Brasil, e a compilação de dados publicada por Castro & Dourado (2011) para as drenagens dos Rios Mearim, Pindaré, Pericumã e alto Turiaçu, incluindo 146 e 109 espécies, respectivamente. Nosso inventário registrou 45 espécies a menos do que o trabalho de Ramos et al. (2014), e oito espécies a menos do que Castro & Dourado (2011). Entretanto, é importante enfatizar que o número de espécies apresentadas por Castro & Dourado (2011) está provavelmente superestimado, pois eles não atualizaram nem checaram o status taxonômico das espécies de seus dados compilados, e em vários casos eles consideraram mais de um nome para a mesma espécie.

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          Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

          The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21st century, and deserves attention from conservationists and policy makers.
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            Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals: Part 1

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              Biogeography of Amazonian fishes: deconstructing river basins as biogeographic units

              ABSTRACT Biogeography of Amazonian fishes (2,500 species in vastly disjunct lineages) is complex and has so far been approached only partially. Here, we tackle the problem on the basis of the largest database yet on geographical distribution and phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian fishes, including all information available. Distributions of 4,095 species (both Amazonian and outgroups) and 84 phylogenetic hypotheses (comprising 549 phylogenetically-informative nodes) were compiled, qualified and plotted onto 46 areas (29 Amazonian and 17 non-Amazonian). The database was analyzed with PAE, CADE, BPA and BPA0, yielding largely congruent results and indicating that biogeographic signal is detectable on multiple dimensions of fish distribution, from single species ranges to cladistic congruence. Agreement is especially pronounced in deeper components, such as Trans-Andean, Cis-Andean, Western Amazon and Orinoco basins. Results show that all major Amazonian tributaries, as well as the Amazon basin itself, are non-monophyletic and constitute hybrid sets of heterogeneous biotic partitions. Amazonian drainages should not be assumed a priori as historically cohesive areas, contrary to widespread practice. Our hypothesis allows re-evaluation of broader issues in historical biogeography, such as the predictive power of biogeographic hypotheses, the vicariant/dispersal duality, the significance of widely distributed taxa, and the need for temporal dimension in biogeographic patterns. RESUMO A biogeografia dos peixes amazônicos (2.500 espécies de diferentes linhagens) é complexa e até agora foi abordada apenas parcialmente. Aqui abordamos o problema com base no maior banco de dados já feito sobre a distribuição geográfica e as relações filogenéticas dos peixes amazônicos, incluindo todas as informações disponíveis. A distribuição de 4.095 espécies (tanto amazônicas como de grupos-externos) e 84 hipóteses filogenéticas (que incluíam 549 nós filogeneticamente informativos) foram compiladas e qualificadas em 46 áreas (29 amazônicas e 17 não-amazônicas). O banco de dados foi analisado a partir das metodologias PAE, CADE, BPA e BPA0, resultando em topologias amplamente congruentes e indicando que o sinal biogeográfico é detectável em múltiplas dimensões, desde a simples distribuição de peixes até em congruência cladística. A concordância topológica é especialmente pronunciada em componentes mais profundos, como as bacias Trans-Andina, Cis-Andina, Amazonas Ocidental e Orinoco. Os resultados demonstram que todos os principais afluentes amazônicos, bem como a própria bacia amazônica, não são monofiléticos e constituem conjuntos híbridos formados a partir de parcelas bióticas heterogêneas. As drenagens amazônicas não devem ser consideradas a priori como áreas historicamente coesas, contrariamente à prática generalizada. Nossa hipótese permite a reavaliação de questões mais amplas na biogeografia histórica, como o poder preditivo de hipóteses biogeográficas, a dualidade vicariante/dispersão, significância de táxons amplamente distribuídos e a necessidade da dimensão temporal em padrões biogeográficos.

                Author and article information

                Biota Neotropica
                Biota Neotrop.
                Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                : 20
                : 4
                Ipatinga MG orgnamePesquisador Autônomo Brasil
                Chapadinha orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Laboratório de Sistemática e Ecologia de Organismos Aquáticos orgdiv2Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Brazil
                São Luís orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia da Amazônia Legal Brazil
                S1676-06032020000400302 S1676-0603(20)02000400302

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