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      Uremia causes premature ageing of the T cell compartment in end-stage renal disease patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) have premature immunologically aged T cells which may underlie uremia-associated immune dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia was able to induce premature ageing of the T cell compartment. For this purpose, we examined the degree of premature immunological T cell ageing by examining the T cell differentiation status, thymic output via T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) content and proliferative history via relative telomere length in ESRD patients not on RRT.

          Results

          Compared to healthy controls, these patients already had a lower TREC content and an increased T cell differentiation accompanied by shorter telomeres. RRT was able to enhance CD8 + T cell differentiation and to reduce CD8 + T cell telomere length in young dialysis patients. An increased differentiation status of memory CD4 + T cells was also noted in young dialysis patients.

          Conclusion

          Based on these results we can conclude that uremia already causes premature immunological ageing of the T cell system and RRT further increases immunological ageing of the CD8 + T cell compartment in particular in young ESRD patients.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Interleukin-7 mediates the homeostasis of naïve and memory CD8 T cells in vivo.

          The naïve and memory T lymphocyte pools are maintained through poorly understood homeostatic mechanisms that may include signaling via cytokine receptors. We show that interleukin-7 (IL-7) plays multiple roles in regulating homeostasis of CD8+ T cells. We found that IL-7 was required for homeostatic expansion of naïve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in lymphopenic hosts and for CD8+ T cell survival in normal hosts. In contrast, IL-7 was not necessary for growth of CD8+ T cells in response to a virus infection but was critical for generating T cell memory. Up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the absence of IL-7 signaling was impaired after activation in vivo. Homeostatic proliferation of memory cells was also partially dependent on IL-7. These results point to IL-7 as a pivotal cytokine in T cell homeostasis.
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            Analyses and comparisons of telomerase activity and telomere length in human T and B cells: insights for epidemiology of telomere maintenance.

            Telomeres are the DNA-protein complexes that protect the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The cellular enzyme telomerase counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric DNA. A growing body of literature links shorter telomere length and lower telomerase activity with various age-related diseases and earlier mortality. Thus, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and telomerase activity are emerging both as biomarkers and contributing factors for age-related diseases. However, no clinical study has directly examined telomerase activity and telomere length in different lymphocyte subtypes isolated from the same donors, which could offer insight into the summary measure of leukocyte telomere maintenance. We report the first quantitative data in humans examining both levels of telomerase activity and telomere length in four lymphocyte subpopulations from the same donors-CD4+, CD8+CD28+ and CD8+CD28- T cells and B cells, as well as total PBMCs-in a cohort of healthy women. We found that B cells had the highest telomerase activity and longest telomere length; CD4+ T cells had slightly higher telomerase activity than CD8+CD28+ T cells, and similar telomere length. Consistent with earlier reports that CD8+CD28- T cells are replicatively senescent cells, they had the lowest telomerase activity and shortest telomere length. In addition, a higher percentage of CD8+CD28- T cells correlated with shorter total PBMC TL (r=-0.26, p=0.05). Interestingly, telomerase activities of CD4+ and CD8+CD28+ T cells from the same individual were strongly correlated (r=0.55, r<0.001), indicating possible common mechanisms for telomerase activity regulation in these two cell subtypes. These data will facilitate the understanding of leukocyte aging and its relationship to human health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease: an international collaborative study.

              Previous studies have suggested that the frequency of cancer is higher in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than in the general population, but have not established whether this increase is confined to certain cancers or to certain categories of ESRD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of cancer in a large cohort of patients treated by dialysis but not transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 831,804 patients who received dialysis during the period 1980-94 for ESRD in the USA, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand. We compared the observed frequency of cancer among these patients during 2,045,035 person-years of follow-up with the frequency of cancer in the respective background populations. During average follow-up of 2.5 years, 25,044 (3%) of 831,804 patients developed cancer compared with an expected number of 21,185 (standardised incidence ratio 1.18 [95% CI 1.17-1.20]). We observed a higher risk of cancer in patients younger than 35 years (3.68 [3.39-3.99]), and the risk gradually decreased with increasing age. High risks were observed for cancer of the kidney (3.60 [3.45-3.76]), bladder (1.50 [1.42-1.57]), and thyroid and other endocrine organs (2.28 [2.03-2.54]). Excess cancers appeared in several organs for which viruses have been suspected as causative agents, whereas cancers of the lung, colorectum, prostate, breast, and stomach were not consistently increased. The overall risk of cancer is increased in patients with ESRD, and the distribution of tumour types resembles the pattern seen after transplantation (although we have no data to make the comparison with skin cancer). The excess risk can largely be ascribed to effects of underlying renal or urinary-tract disease, or of loss of renal function, on the kidney and bladder, and to increased susceptibility to viral carcinogenesis. The relative risk, which is especially high in younger patients, gradually diminishes with age.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Immun Ageing
                Immun Ageing
                Immunity & Ageing : I & A
                BioMed Central
                1742-4933
                2012
                12 September 2012
                : 9
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, section Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
                [2 ]Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Immunology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
                Article
                1742-4933-9-19
                10.1186/1742-4933-9-19
                3482595
                22971545
                Copyright ©2012 Meijers et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Immunology

                renal replacement therapy, end-stage renal disease, cd28null, ageing, t lymphocytes, uremia

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