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      Localized myosin II activity regulates assembly and plasticity of the axon initial segment

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          Summary

          The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential generation and a locus of activity-dependent homeostatic plasticity. A multimeric complex of sodium channels, linked via a cytoskeletal scaffold of ankyrin G and beta IV spectrin to submembranous actin rings, mediates these functions. The mechanisms that specify the AIS complex to the proximal axon and underlie its plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we show phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), an activator of contractile myosin II, is highly enriched in the assembling and mature AIS, where it associates with actin rings. MLC phosphorylation and myosin II contractile activity are required for AIS assembly and regulate the distribution of AIS components along the axon. pMLC is rapidly lost during depolarization, destabilizing actin and thereby providing a mechanism for activity-dependent structural plasticity of the AIS. Together, these results identify pMLC/myosin II activity as a common link between AIS assembly and plasticity.

          eTOC

          Berger et al demonstrate that MLC, a key regulator of contractile myosin II, is enriched in the axon initial segment (AIS) and is associated with actin rings. They show MLC/myosin II have major roles in AIS assembly and activity dependent-plasticity.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          8809320
          1600
          Neuron
          Neuron
          Neuron
          0896-6273
          1097-4199
          11 January 2018
          25 January 2018
          07 February 2018
          07 February 2019
          : 97
          : 3
          : 555-570.e6
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Neuroscience Institute and Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, 10016, USA
          [2 ]Departments of Cardiology and Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, 10016, USA
          [3 ]NeuroCyto, NICN UMR7259, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, 13344 Cedex 15, Marseille, France
          [4 ]Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China
          [5 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, 10016, USA
          [6 ]Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, New York, New York, 10065, USA
          Author notes
          Article
          PMC5805619 PMC5805619 5805619 nihpa931063
          10.1016/j.neuron.2017.12.039
          5805619
          29395909
          27e5ec27-e8af-49fa-99fc-32980e3b09a5
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