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      Neoamphitrite undevigintipes , a new terebellid species from South Korea (Annelida, Terebellida, Terebellidae)

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          A detailed description and illustrations of a new terebellid species are provided, and molecular information based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene are included. The new species, Neoamphitrite undevigintipes sp. nov., is described from the deep sea off the eastern coast of South Korea. It is similar to Neoamphitrite groenlandica (Malmgren, 1866) in that the thorax has 19 notopodial chaetigers. However, Neoamphitrite undevigintipes sp. nov. is clearly distinguishable from N. groenlandica in having the uncini of the first abdominal chaetiger arranged in a single row and in having 12 ventral shields. A taxonomic key to all known Neoamphitrite species is also included.

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          A Tri-Oceanic Perspective: DNA Barcoding Reveals Geographic Structure and Cryptic Diversity in Canadian Polychaetes

          Background Although polychaetes are one of the dominant taxa in marine communities, their distributions and taxonomic diversity are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that many species thought to have broad distributions are actually a complex of allied species. In Canada, 12% of polychaete species are thought to occur in Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans, but the extent of gene flow among their populations has not been tested. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was employed to compare morphological versus molecular diversity estimates, to examine gene flow among populations of widespread species, and to explore connectivity patterns among Canada's three oceans. Analysis of 1876 specimens, representing 333 provisional species, revealed 40 times more sequence divergence between than within species (16.5% versus 0.38%). Genetic data suggest that one quarter of previously recognized species actually include two or more divergent lineages, indicating that richness in this region is currently underestimated. Few species with a tri-oceanic distribution showed genetic cohesion. Instead, large genetic breaks occur between Pacific and Atlantic-Arctic lineages, suggesting their long-term separation. High connectivity among Arctic and Atlantic regions and low connectivity with the Pacific further supports the conclusion that Canadian polychaetes are partitioned into two distinct faunas. Conclusions/Significance Results of this study confirm that COI sequences are an effective tool for species identification in polychaetes, and suggest that DNA barcoding will aid the recognition of species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. The consistent geographic structuring within presumed widespread species suggests that historical range fragmentation during the Pleistocene ultimately increased Canadian polychaete diversity and that the coastal British Columbia fauna played a minor role in Arctic recolonization following deglaciation. This study highlights the value of DNA barcoding for providing rapid insights into species distributions and biogeographic patterns in understudied groups.
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            Validating Livanow: molecular data agree that leeches, Branchiobdellidans, and Acanthobdella peledina form a monophyletic group of oligochaetes.

            To investigate the phylogenetic relationships of leeches, branchiobdellidans, and acanthobdellidans, whole nuclear 18S rDNA and over 650 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I were acquired from 101 annelids, including 36 leeches, 18 branchiobdellidans, Acanthobdella peledina, as well as 28 oligochaetes and combined with homologous data for 17 polychaete outgroup taxa. Parsimony analysis of the combined aligned dataset supported monophyly of leeches, branchiobdellidans, and acanthobdellidans in 100% of jackknife replicates. Monophyly of the oligochaete order Lumbriculida with Acanthobdellida, Branchiobdellida, and Hirudinea was supported in 84% of jackknife replicates. These results provide support for the hypotheses that leeches and branchiobdellidans are sister groups, that acanthobdellidans are sister to them, and that together with the family Lumbriculidae they all constitute a clade within Oligochaeta. Results support synonymy of the classes Clitellata and the more commonly used Oligochaeta. Leeches branchiobdellidans, and acanthobdellidans should be regarded as orders equal to their closest relatives, the order Lumbriculida.
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              Zur Kenntnis der terebellomorphen Polychaeten.

               C HESSLE,  C Hessle (1917)

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                22 June 2020
                : 943
                : 41-51
                [1 ] National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, 22689, South Korea National Institute of Biological Resources Incheon South Korea
                [2 ] National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon, Chungcheongnam-do 33662, South Korea National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea Seocheon South Korea
                [3 ] Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, South Korea Chousun University Gwangju South Korea
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Seong Myeong Yoon ( smyun@ 123456chosun.ac.kr )

                Academic editor: Christopher Glasby

                Hyun Ki Choi, Hana Kim, Seong Myeong Yoon

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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