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      Programmable autonomous micromixers and micropumps

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          Chaotic mixer for microchannels.

          It is difficult to mix solutions in microchannels. Under typical operating conditions, flows in these channels are laminar-the spontaneous fluctuations of velocity that tend to homogenize fluids in turbulent flows are absent, and molecular diffusion across the channels is slow. We present a passive method for mixing streams of steady pressure-driven flows in microchannels at low Reynolds number. Using this method, the length of the channel required for mixing grows only logarithmically with the Péclet number, and hydrodynamic dispersion along the channel is reduced relative to that in a simple, smooth channel. This method uses bas-relief structures on the floor of the channel that are easily fabricated with commonly used methods of planar lithography.
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            Collapse of gels in an electric field.

            An infinitesimal change in electric potential across a polyelectrolyte gel produces a discrete, reversible volume change. The volume of the collapsed gel can be several hundred times smaller than that of the swollen gel.
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              Passive mixing in a three-dimensional serpentine microchannel

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
                J. Microelectromech. Syst.
                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                1057-7157
                December 2005
                December 2005
                : 14
                : 6
                : 1409-1421
                Article
                10.1109/JMEMS.2005.859101
                27f10a5a-e4cf-4cf4-9e0f-0d6138cb8131
                © 2005
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