Intestinal L-cells secrete the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to ingestion of nutrients, especially long-chain fatty acids. The Gαs-coupled receptor GPR119 binds the long-chain fatty acid derivate oleoylethanolamide (OEA), and GPR119 agonists enhance GLP-1 secretion. We therefore hypothesized that OEA stimulates GLP-1 release through a GPR119-dependent mechanism.
Murine (m) GLUTag, human (h) NCI-H716, and primary fetal rat intestinal L-cell models were used for RT-PCR and for cAMP and GLP-1 radioimmunoassay. Anesthetized rats received intravenous or intraileal OEA, and plasma bioactive GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or glucose analyzer.
GPR119 messenger RNA was detected in all L-cell models. OEA treatment (10 μmol/l) of mGLUTag cells increased cAMP levels ( P < 0.05) and GLP-1 secretion ( P < 0.001) in all models, with desensitization of the secretory response at higher concentrations. GLP-1 secretion was further enhanced by prevention of OEA degradation using the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597 ( P < 0.05–0.001 vs. OEA alone), and was abolished by H89-induced inhibition of protein kinase A. OEA-induced cAMP levels and GLP-1 secretion were significantly reduced in mGLUTag cells transfected with GPR119-specific small interfering RNA ( P < 0.05). Application of OEA (10 μmol/l) directly into the rat ileum, but not intravenously, increased plasma bioactive GLP-1 levels in euglycemic animals by 1.5-fold ( P < 0.05) and insulin levels by 3.9-fold ( P < 0.01) but only in the presence of hyperglycemia.