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      Streptomyces: implications and interactions in plant growth promotion


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          With the impending increase of the world population by 2050, more activities have been directed toward the improvement of crop yield and a safe environment. The need for chemical-free agricultural practices is becoming eminent due to the effects of these chemicals on the environment and human health. Actinomycetes constitute a significant percentage of the soil microbial community. The Streptomyces genus, which is the most abundant and arguably the most important actinomycetes, is a good source of bioactive compounds, antibiotics, and extracellular enzymes. These genera have shown over time great potential in improving the future of agriculture. This review highlights and buttresses the agricultural importance of Streptomyces through its biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activities. These activities are highlighted and discussed in this review. Some biocontrol products from this genus are already being marketed while work is still ongoing on this productive genus. Compared to more focus on its biocontrol ability, less work has been done on it as a biofertilizer until recently. This genus is as efficient as a biofertilizer as it is as a biocontrol.

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          Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments.

          The large majority of antibiotics currently used for treating infections and the antibiotic resistance genes acquired by human pathogens each have an environmental origin. Recent work indicates that the function of these elements in their environmental reservoirs may be very distinct from the "weapon-shield" role they play in clinical settings. Changes in natural ecosystems, including the release of large amounts of antimicrobials, might alter the population dynamics of microorganisms, including selection of resistance, with consequences for human health that are difficult to predict.
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            Genomics of Actinobacteria: tracing the evolutionary history of an ancient phylum.

            Actinobacteria constitute one of the largest phyla among bacteria and represent gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their DNA. This bacterial group includes microorganisms exhibiting a wide spectrum of morphologies, from coccoid to fragmenting hyphal forms, as well as possessing highly variable physiological and metabolic properties. Furthermore, Actinobacteria members have adopted different lifestyles, and can be pathogens (e.g., Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Tropheryma, and Propionibacterium), soil inhabitants (Streptomyces), plant commensals (Leifsonia), or gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium). The divergence of Actinobacteria from other bacteria is ancient, making it impossible to identify the phylogenetically closest bacterial group to Actinobacteria. Genome sequence analysis has revolutionized every aspect of bacterial biology by enhancing the understanding of the genetics, physiology, and evolutionary development of bacteria. Various actinobacterial genomes have been sequenced, revealing a wide genomic heterogeneity probably as a reflection of their biodiversity. This review provides an account of the recent explosion of actinobacterial genomics data and an attempt to place this in a biological and evolutionary context.
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              Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria

              The idea of eliminating the use of fertilizers which are sometimes environmentally unsafe is slowly becoming a reality because of the emergence of microorganisms that can serve the same purpose or even do better. Depletion of soil nutrients through leaching into the waterways and causing contamination are some of the negative effects of these chemical fertilizers that prompted the need for suitable alternatives. This brings us to the idea of using microbes that can be developed for use as biological fertilizers (biofertilizers). They are environmentally friendly as they are natural living organisms. They increase crop yield and production and, in addition, in developing countries, they are less expensive compared to chemical fertilizers. These biofertilizers are typically called plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). In addition to PGPB, some fungi have also been demonstrated to promote plant growth. Apart from improving crop yields, some biofertilizers also control various plant pathogens. The objective of worldwide sustainable agriculture is much more likely to be achieved through the widespread use of biofertilizers rather than chemically synthesized fertilizers. However, to realize this objective it is essential that the many mechanisms employed by PGPB first be thoroughly understood thereby allowing workers to fully harness the potentials of these microbes. The present state of our knowledge regarding the fundamental mechanisms employed by PGPB is discussed herein.

                Author and article information

                Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
                Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol
                Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                29 December 2018
                29 December 2018
                : 103
                : 3
                : 1179-1188
                ISNI 0000 0000 9769 2525, GRID grid.25881.36, Food Security and Safety Niche Area, Faculty of Natural and Agriculture Sciences, , North-West University, ; Mmabatho, 2735 South Africa
                © The Author(s) 2018

                OpenAccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100011512, National Research Foundation;
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

                actinomycetes,biocontrol,biofertilizer,streptomyces,sustainable agriculture,vocs
                actinomycetes, biocontrol, biofertilizer, streptomyces, sustainable agriculture, vocs


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