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      Circadian rhythms, sleep, and metabolism.

      The Journal of clinical investigation

      Animals, Brain, physiology, Circadian Rhythm, drug effects, genetics, radiation effects, Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, physiopathology, Diet, Dietary Fats, adverse effects, Energy Metabolism, Glucose, metabolism, Homeostasis, Humans, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Mice, Mice, Mutant Strains, Nerve Net, Neuropeptides, Obesity, Signal Transduction, Sleep, Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm

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          Abstract

          The discovery of the genetic basis for circadian rhythms has expanded our knowledge of the temporal organization of behavior and physiology. The observations that the circadian gene network is present in most living organisms from eubacteria to humans, that most cells and tissues express autonomous clocks, and that disruption of clock genes results in metabolic dysregulation have revealed interactions between metabolism and circadian rhythms at neural, molecular, and cellular levels. A major challenge remains in understanding the interplay between brain and peripheral clocks and in determining how these interactions promote energy homeostasis across the sleep-wake cycle. In this Review, we evaluate how investigation of molecular timing may create new opportunities to understand and develop therapies for obesity and diabetes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          21633182
          3104765
          10.1172/JCI46043

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