We analyzed the adult musculature of two prolecithophoran species, Cylindrostoma monotrochum (von Graff, 1882) and Monoophorum striatum (von Graff, 1878) using a phalloidin‐rhodamine technique. As in all rhabdithophoran flatworms, the body‐wall musculature consisted of three muscle layers: on the outer side was a layer of circular muscle fibers and on the inner side was a layer of longitudinal muscle fibers; between them were two different types of diagonally orientated fibers, which is unusual for flatworms. The musculature of the pharynx consisted of a basket‐shaped grid of thin longitudinal and circular fibers. Thick anchoring muscle fibers forming a petal‐like shape connected the proximal parts of the pharynx with the body‐wall musculature. Male genital organs consisted of paired seminal vesicles, a granular vesicle, and an invaginated penis. Peculiar ring‐shaped muscles were only found in M. striatum, predominantly in the anterior body part. In the same species, seminal vesicles and penis only had circular musculature, while in C. monotrochum also longitudinal musculature was found in these organs. Female genital organs were only present in M. striatum, where we characterized a vagina interna, and a bursa seminalis. Transverse, crossover, and dorsoventral muscle fibers were lacking in the middle of the body and greatly varied in number and position in both species.